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"For" is not always "für"

Lesson 58. Vocabulary

The German accusative preposition für is often translated to the English preposition "for":

Hier gibt es viele verschiedene Sachen für die Familie und für die Kinder zu sehen.
Here there are many different things for the family and for the children to see.
Caption 8, Berlin: Domäne Dahlem

However, the English preposition "for" may also be translated to German as aus:

Aber aus irgendeinem Grund wollte Pandora im Haus bleiben.
But for some reason Pandora wanted to stay in the house.
Captions 33-34, Märchen, Sagenhaft: Die Büchse der Pandora

Or as zum:

Fast jedes Ei, das zum Verkauf in Supermärkten gedacht ist, muss mit einem Zahlencode gekennzeichnet sein.
Almost every egg that is intended for sale in supermarkets must be marked with a number code.
Captions 9-10, Bioeier: Wie funktioniert der Erzeugercode?

Or as seit:

Und seit wie lange schon? -Seit sechzehn Jahren.
And for how long already? -For sixteen years.
Caption 6, Frisbee: Karlsruher Weihnachtsturnier

Remember too that foreign words in general may be translated differently according to context. Just because "for" translates to seit in the above example does not mean that seit always translates back to "for":

Aber seit ich in Berlin lebe, arbeite ich als Kellnerin und Barista in Cafés.
But since I've lived in Berlin, I've worked as a waitress and barista in cafés.
Caption 16, Berlin: Judith und die „Brezel Bar“

Further Learning
Search on Yabla German for the English word "for" to see examples of how this preposition can be translated to German in different contexts.
 

Common German Mistakes: Wie or Als?

Lesson 57. Grammar

German speakers sometimes make the mistake of using wie (as, like, how) instead of als (than), an error that is a bit puzzling for native English speakers. It is hard for us to imagine saying, for example: "I am taller as you" instead of "I am taller than you," but in German this is a fairly common error. The following Yabla English translations reflect the corrections to als:

Also wir geben hier mehr her, wie [sic, als] die Lufthansa da in der... in der Businessclass.
So we deliver more here than Lufthansa there in the… in the business class.
Captions 45-16, Fluglinien: Niki Air

wie [sic, als] wenn man einfach sagt: „Ich hab' dir 'nen ganz gesunden Salat gemacht“.
than if you simply say, “I’ve made ​​you a very healthy salad.”
Captions 32-33, Kochhaus Berlin: Kochen mit Kindern

The German als should be used like the English "than" when showing contrast, as a function word to indicate an inequality between two things:

Ich sage immer, eher mehr Selbstvertrauen als Talent.
I always say, rather more confidence than talent.
Caption 19, Cassandra Steen: Interview

Wobei man hier eher vom Fallen als vom Fliegen sprechen muss.     
Although in this case it would be more accurate to speak of falling rather than of flying.
Caption 5, Abenteuer und Sport: Fallschirmspringen

Whereas wie is used to relate things that are similar in some way, or to give an example:

Wir haben ein Programm mit Ikonen der Musikgeschichte wie Foreigner oder den Simple Minds.
We have a program with icons of music history like Foreigner or Simple Minds.
Captions 7-8, Das Tollwood-Festival: Bap und Clueso in der Musik-Arena

Da sind die besten Firmen der Welt dabei wie Siemens und andere.
The best companies in the world are there, like Siemens and others.
Caption 40, Berlins regierender Bürgermeister: Pläne für 2014

Further Learning
Search on Yabla German for the words als and wie to find more of the ways these expressions are used in context.
 

Bist du dir sicher? German Expressions of Certainty

Lesson 56. Vocabulary

English adjectives for being sure or certain about something are often interchangeable, but German expressions like bestimmt, gewiss, and sicher are more specific to the particular context in which they are used. Let's take a look at all three.

Bestimmt can mean either "definitely"

Du machst Filme und die Leute sagen „Das wird bestimmt so“.
You make films and the people say, "It will definitely be like this."
Caption 34, Berlinale: Schauspieler Jürgen Vogel

or in the nominalized noun something specific or in particular:

Wenn du mal was Bestimmtes vorhaben würdest…
If you were up to something specific
Caption 12, Wahlspots: Szenen einer Ehe

Gewiss can mean "certain" in the standard sense

Die Unterstützung des Schirmherrn ist den Fußballfrauen gewiss.
The support of the patron for the women's soccer team is certain.
Captions 13-14, Frauenfußball-WM: Der Bundespräsident am Ball

or as a suggestion of vagueness or uncertainty, a "certain something":

Aber ein gewisser Druck bleibt trotzdem.
But a certain pressure remains nevertheless.
Caption 23, Cro: mit „Melodie“ an Chartspitze

Sicher can mean "certain"

Ich bin mir sicher, es wird klappen.
I am sure it will work out.
Caption 39, Yabla-Intro: Jenny

but in other contexts it means "safe":

Es ist ein sicherer Standplatz.
It is a safe location.
Caption 36, Für Tierfreunde: Falknerei Feldberg

The words bestimmt, gewiss, and sicherlich can be used interchangeably when meaning "of course" or "certainly": Sicherlich / Bestimmt / Gewiss werden wir die Deutschprüfung bestehen. (We will certainly pass the German test.)

Further Learning
Search for some uses of bestimmt, gewiss, and sicher (sicherlich too) on Yabla German to learn about the ways some of these expressions are used in context.

The "weak masculine" or n-declination

Lesson 55. Grammar

If a German noun ends in an "e," it's usually feminine, but there are also masculine nouns that end with "e" that require special "n" or "-en" endings in all singular non-nominative cases. To complicate things further, there are also masculine nouns not ending in "e" that require the special endings too!

Basically, the n-declination only occurs with masculine nouns, never with feminine or neuter nouns, and only a small percentage of masculine nouns are weak. Besides the rule of masculine nouns ending with -e, there is no hard and fast rule to classify them — they just have to be learned! It's helpful to know that many are professions, animals, and nationalities. Here are a few examples of weak masculine nouns to remember that you will commonly encounter in everyday usage.

Der Junge is a weak masculine noun, which you know because of the masculine der and the -e ending. Note that the -e ending changes to -en:

Der Zauberer sah zu dem zitternden Jungen hinab.
The sorcerer looked down at the trembling boy.
Caption 80, Märchen, Sagenhaft: Der Zauberlehrling

However, der Nachbar is also a weak masculine noun, despite the -r ending. Note that the -r ending changes to -rn:

Du könntest einfach zum Nachbarn gehen.
You could simply go to the neighbor.
Caption 25, Fine: sucht einen Hammer

Der Student is a very common weak masculine noun that takes the -en ending in non-nominative singular:

Ich habe einen spanischen Studenten eingestellt.
I've hired a Spanish student.
Caption 22, Barbara Schöneberger: Bambi-Verleihung Backstage

Der Herr is a weak masculine noun when it's translated as "lord"

Sofort rannte er zu seinem Herrn.
Immediately, he ran to his lord.
Caption 47, Märchen, Sagenhaft: Der gestiefelte Kater

and in its more common form as the honorific "Mr." or "Mister"

Das war eine Idee von Herrn Singer.
That was an idea of Mister Singer's.
Caption 35, Modedesignerin Nina Hollein: Floria Prinzessin von Hessen

Further Learning
Here are some examples of weak masculine nouns requiring the -n or -en endings in non-nominative singular (all of them have the masculine article der): Architekt, Astronaut, Bär, Bauer, Diplomat, Elefant, Emigrant, Held, Idiot, Kamerad, Kandidat, Kapitalist, Kommunist, Kunde, Löwe, Mensch, Neffe, Pilot, Präsident, Rabe, Russe, Schimpanse, Schwede, and Soziologe. See if you can find some examples of them in context with -n or -en endings on Yabla German. For more reading about this topic, check out the article Tricky Masculine Nouns in German.

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