The German electronic band Kraftwerk ("power plant") had a US radio hit back in the 1970s with their song "Autobahn," and as kids we used to like to sing along to it. I suspect, however, that we weren't the only ones who superimposed sound-alike English lyrics onto the German. Instead of the correct text Fahren, fahren, fahren auf der Autobahn, we sang "fun, fun, fun on the autobahn." At least we got the Autobahn part right!
Although the verb fahren is the root word of many other German verbs, verbs based on fahren can have a significantly different meaning than "to drive." One such word is the verb verfahren, which itself has several distinct meanings:
Lange klingeln lassen und dann wie gehabt verfahren.
Let it ring for longer and then proceed as usual.
Fast hätte ich mich noch verfahren.
Then I would've almost lost my way.
Following up with various translations of the verb erfahren:
Das mussten wir wieder mit Schrecken erfahren.
We were forced once again to experience this with horror.
Caption 57, Angela Merkel: Neujahrsansprache
Wir haben nichts gefilmt. -Niemand wird davon erfahren.
We didn't film anything. -Nobody will find out about it.
Caption 30, Die Pfefferkörner: Gerüchteküche
Ich hab' das erst mal durch die „Aktuelle Kamera“ erfahren.
I learned about it for the first time through "Aktuelle Kamera.”
Caption 23, 25 Jahre Mauerfall: Bürger Lars Dietrich erinnert sich
And then there is the verb anfahren, which can mean "to start driving" or "to approach," but also has another meaning:
In Kopenhagen ist es wahrscheinlicher, von einem Fahrrad angefahren zu werden, als von einem Auto.
In Copenhagen, you are more likely to get run over by a bicycle than by a car.
Captions 5-6, TEDx: Der Supermarkt der Zukunft
A search on the crowd-sourced German-English dictionary dict.cc yields over a thousand words of all grammatical types that include fahren in some way. Find some new words in that list and look up the various meanings they have on Duden, then go to Yabla German to find examples of the words used in videos. You can also look at this Dartmouth University article on German word formation and how prefixes significantly alter the meaning of the root word upon which they are based.
Last week, we discussed the conjunctions denn, weil, and da, the most common ways of saying "because" in German. There is, however, yet a third far less common German word that can be translated as "because" in slang usage: darum. But first, let's take a look at the way darum is more commonly used.
The adverb darum, depending upon its context in a sentence, most commonly has a topical meaning as "about," almost always in conjunction with the verb gehen:
Es ging eigentlich darum, Wohnraum zu schaffen in der Stadt.
It was actually about creating living spaces in the city.
Caption 20, Umweltbewusstes Wohnen: Architekturpreis Green Building
Or as "therefore, which can also be alternately translated as "that's why" or "for this reason":
Darum nenn mich nie mehr dummes Huhn.
Therefore never call me "dumb chick" anymore.
Caption 20, Cosma Shiva Hagen: So trägt man Pelz
You sometimes see darum as part of the separable verb darumstehen, which can translate as "to stand around" or "to stand around there," as opposed to the more common herumstehen ("to stand around" or "to stand around here"). Darumstehen can also mean to stand around something, as in um etwas herumstehen:
Wir sehen das Fahrrad und die Kinder, die darumstehen.
We see the bicycle and the children standing around it.
A slang usage of the adverb darum, however, is typically seen as a childish answer to a question, or an answer that is really no answer at all!
Warum hast du das gemacht? -Darum!
Why did you do that? -Because!
This week we are going to take a look at the differences between dann and denn, a fairly difficult topic even for experienced non-native German speakers. Part of the problem lies in the fact that in Old High German and Middle High German, these two currently distinct words were just one word, thus they both come from the same root. If we reduce dann and denn to their basic grammatical forms, it's possible to get a better understanding of how they are used.
1. As an adverb, dann is usually translated as "then":
Wenn die Klassen größer werden als 15 bis 20, dann fange ich an zu teilen.
When the classes get bigger than 15 to 20, then I start to split them.
Caption 67, Strothoff International School: Interview mit dem Rektor
Dann ist auch die Mutter damit beschäftigt, Nahrung herbeizuschaffen.
Then the mother is also occupied with providing nourishment.
Caption 31, Alpenseen: Kühle Schönheiten
If you ever hear a native German say denn as an adverb in sentences similar to the above, that's because in Northern German dialect, denn and dann are still interchangeable. According to Duden, any other use of denn as an adverb is only very rare.
2. As a particle, denn is usually translated as "then":
Und was ist denn los?
And what is happening then?
Caption 45, Das Lügenbüro: Die Bewerbung
Wo wollen wir denn hin?
Where do we want to go then?
Caption 30: Die Klasse: Berlin '61
Note that the particle denn is almost exclusively found in interrogative sentences (sentences that ask a question)!
3: As a coordinating conjunction, denn is usually translated to English as "because" (or sometimes "since"):
Wir erleben Emotionen und heben ab, denn wir sind frei.
We experience emotions and lift off, because we are free.
Caption 12: Christina Stürmer: Fieber
Denn plötzlich wurden wir eine richtig moderne Familie.
Because suddenly we became a really modern family.
Caption 21, Mama arbeitet wieder: Alle haben sich lieb
Notice that denn is a conjunction like und or aber or oder and does not force the sentence order to place the verb at the end of the sentence.
So to recap:
1. dann as an adverb usually translates as "then";
2. denn as a particle is usually found in sentences asking a question and usually translates as "then," though as an emphasis word it may not be translated at all;
3. denn as a conjunction usually translates as "because," except in
4. Northern German dialect, where denn is used interchangeably for the standard German adverb dann.
Perhaps the easiest way to remember the basic gist of this is: if you want to say "then" in a sentence, it's usually dann; if you want to say "then" in a question, it will most often be denn; or if you want to say "because" you can use denn. This is somewhat oversimplifying the situation, but should serve as a good way to sort out the basics of the differences between dann and denn!
In next week's lesson, we will learn about the difference between the conjunctions denn and weil, both ways to say "because."
Go to Yabla German and search for dann and denn to see the words used in a real-world context. For an in-depth analysis of the origin of the words dann and denn, read this DWDS page under Etymologie, and be sure and click below it for the full version of the text! For a somewhat lighter-hearted view on the two words, check out this German language blog.
Last week, we discussed the differences between denn and dann. This week we are going to look at denn, weil, and da, the most common ways of saying "because" in German. There is a big difference in the way these words affect the sentence structure, however. Without getting too in-depth with complicated grammar rules, we can easily understand that the coordinating conjunction denn does not require that the sentence order of Subject-Verb-Object be changed, but the subordinating conjunctions weil and da do. The German verbs are marked in green so you can note their placement in the sentence:
Solche Bilder sind selten, denn Olme haben nur alle 6 bis 8 Jahre Nachwuchs.
Such images are rare, because olms have offspring only every 6 to 8 years.
Caption 33, Alpenseen: Kühle Schönheiten
The subordinate conjunction weil forces the sentence structure to place the verb at the end of the sentence. Compare the above with how it would read if it used weil or da instead of denn:
Solche Bilder sind selten, weil Olme nur alle 6 bis 8 Jahre Nachwuchs haben.
Solche Bilder sind selten, da Olme nur alle 6 bis 8 Jahre Nachwuchs haben.
Such images are rare, because olms have offspring only every 6 to 8 years.
Note that the English translation is identical. Another example:
Ich übernehme mal den Part, denn ich bin Pressesprecher.
I will take over this part because I'm the press spokesman.
Caption 5, Die OLElympischen Spiele: Laotischer Hühnertanz
But this time with weil and da:
Ich übernehme mal den Part, weil ich Pressesprecher bin.
Ich übernehme mal den Part, da ich Pressesprecher bin.
I will take over this part because I'm the press spokesman.
So you see how using denn, the sentence structure remains the same as the standard English Subject-Verb-Object, but with weil and da, the verb must go at the end of the sentence.
The conjunctions denn, weil and da also differ in other ways relating to how each word affects the sentence structure. A clause or sentence part with denn must come after the part of the sentence that it is modifying, so the sentence structure is required to stay like the denn examples above. With weil and da, however, you could structure the examples above three different ways, depending on how you wish to place the emphasis in the sentence:
Solche Bilder sind selten, weil Olme nur alle 6 bis 8 Jahre Nachwuchs haben.
Weil Olme nur alle 6 bis 8 Jahre Nachwuchs haben, sind solche Bilder selten.
Solche Bilder sind, weil Olme nur alle 6 bis 8 Jahre Nachwuchs haben, selten.
Ich übernehme mal den Part, da ich Pressesprecher bin.
Da ich Pressesprecher bin, übernehme ich mal den Part.
Ich übernehme mal, da ich Pressesprecher bin, den Part.
In the above examples, the first sentences are the most commonly seen sentence structure, the second sentences less so, and the last is the least likely, although all three are grammatically correct.
Next week we'll take a look at a fourth way of saying "because," but it's not a conjunction — it's an adverb! Can you guess what it is?
Go to Yabla German and search for denn and weil to see the words used in a real-world context and note how the sentence structure can vary with the two words. For an advanced analysis the conjunctions denn and weil, read this DWDS article on denn and this DWDS article on weil.
Many Germans use slang in their everyday speech. Some slang may be rude or inappropriate, so it's best to avoid that. But there are lots of other kinds of slang expressions that are considered "normal" and perfectly polite in everyday speech.
Diese Frau ist einfach ein Dauerbrenner.
This woman is simply a long burning oven.
Caption 1: Angelique Kerber: Fotoshooting mit dem neuen Porsche 718 Boxster S
Calling somebody a "long burning oven" in English sounds a bit odd, to say the least, and possibly even insulting, but the slang German expression merely means that somebody is perennially popular.
Sophie, bist du immer noch sauer?
Sophie, are you still sour?
Caption 6, Die Pfefferkörner: Gerüchteküche
Of course, the person doesn't really want to know if Sophie is literally sour, but if she is still angry!
Weil du natürlich ihr Bärenführer wirst.
Because you will, of course, become her bear trainer.
Caption 36, Großstadtrevier: Von Monstern und Mördern
Nor does der Bärenführer have anything to do with real bears, what it means is a job trainer for new employees.
Frühlingszeit ist Fahrradzeit, also raus mit dem Drahtesel.
Springtime is bike time, so get out the wire donkey.
Caption 1, Fahrrad: Frühjahrs-Check
Naturally there are no donkeys, mules, burros or other pack animals involved, der Drahtesel is a slang word for bicycle!
Go to Yabla German and search for "slang" to find examples of slang German words used in videos. Then test the knowledge of other students in your German class by using the newly-learned German slang word in an appropriate context. For those who don't understand, it could sound pretty funny: imagine telling the class you rode your "wire donkey" to school that day!
When we are trying to make a specification, we rely on phrases like "sort of," "type of," and "variety of." You may think these words each correspond with the most similar word in the title above, but things are not that simple. This is German, after all!
Die Art can be most generically employed as a translation for "the type of" or "the sort of," and also "the way of."
Spätzle sind eine Art bayrische Nudeln.
Spaetzle are a type of Bavarian noodle.
Caption 2, Bayrische Spätzle: mit Christiane
Es gibt verschiedene Arten von Wind: den säuselnden Hauch, die leichte, die frische und die steife Brise...
There are different types of wind: the murmuring breath, the light, the fresh and the stiff breeze...
Caption 10-12, Piggeldy und Frederick: Der Wind
Die Art also can refer to someone's personality, as in their way of being or way of behaving, and it also can refer to a species of animal.
Es ist überhaupt nicht ihre Art, einfach so wegzulaufen.
It's not her nature to simply run away like that.
Caption 33, Großstadtrevier: Von Monstern und Mördern
Hier sind vier Tierarten, die nach langer Zeit wieder nach Deutschland zurückgekehrt sind.
Here are four species of animals that have returned to Germany after a long time.
Caption 6-7, WWF – Welt in Zahlen: 4 Tierarten, die nach Deutschland zurückgekehrt sind!
Die Sorte is quite similar to die Art, but will more likely be employed for things that are in some way man-made. For example, if you are talking about a variety or flavor of food, often one that is specified by a name, you generally will use die Sorte rather than die Art.
Die Sorte „Jamaika Blue Mountain“, quasi der Champagner unter den Kaffees, kostet sogar über zwanzigmal so viel wie ein Kaffee aus dem Supermarktregal.
The variety "Jamaica Blue Mountain," quasi the champagne of coffees, even costs over twenty times as much as a coffee from the supermarket shelf.
Caption 14-17, Kaffee: Noch von Hand gemacht
Die Eissorten werden jedes Jahr exotischer.
The ice-cream flavors get more exotic every year.
Caption 2, Eis: Eiskalte Leidenschaft
Der Typ is a bit trickier, as it is not universally used to mean "type" like in English. In fact, it is most often used as a slang expression to simply mean "the guy." But it can also mean "type of guy." Like in English, you can say Er/Sie ist nicht mein Typ, which means that the person doesn't interest you romantically.
Ich bin ein sehr nachdenklicher Typ und Mensch.
I am a very thoughtful guy and human being.
Caption 16, Andreas Bourani: Startet durch
Er war schon immer so ein Typ, dem alles so zufliegt.
He was always the kind of guy who always gets everything.
Caption 22-23, Joris: Er
Keep an eye out for examples with these words used on Yabla German, and always look at the noun in the sentence. You will notice patterns which can help you choose the right option later on.
But then you hopefully knew that already! You may not, however, be completely familiar with differences between the two words and the different meanings they can have in specific contexts.
The most common translation of the pronoun etwas is "something":
Etwas hat sich schon verändert.
Something has indeed changed.
Caption 11: 2raumwohnung: Achtung fertig
Und doch hat diese Ausstellung etwas sehr Besonderes.
However, this exhibition has something very distinct about it.
Caption 5, DDR zum Anfassen: Ganz tief im Westen
However, when etwas is used as an adjective pronoun (usually a possessive, or noting quantities of something), it can be translated as "a bit," "somewhat," or less commonly, the simple "some":
Planktonfresser hin oder her, ihm ist doch etwas mulmig geworden.
Plankton eaters or not, he did get a bit queasy.
Caption 25, Abenteuer Nordsee: Unter Riesenhaien und Tintenfischen
Bachforellen sind etwas kleiner als die ursprünglich hier lebenden Marmoratas.
Freshwater trout are somewhat smaller than the marble trout that originally lived here.
Caption 1, Alpenseen: Kühle Schönheiten
… verlor das Fahrrad zwischenzeitlich etwas an Bedeutung.
… the bicycle lost some of its significance for a while.
Caption 25, 200. Geburtstag: Die Geschichte des Fahrrads in 2 Minuten
The adverb etwa can be translated as "about," "approximately" or "something like." It is most often used before a numerical measurement:
Und es sind etwa 35 Kilometer von Dover zu den Sanddünen von Calais.
And it's about 35 kilometers from Dover to the sand dunes of Calais.
Caption 20, Abenteuer Nordsee: Unter Riesenhaien und Tintenfischen
Jährlich werden pro Person in Deutschland etwa 160 Liter Kaffee getrunken.
Every year, approximately 160 liters of coffee are drunk in Germany per person.
Caption 5, Eva zeigt uns: wie man Kaffee kocht
Das bedeutet etwa „Ende des Sommers“.
That means something like "end of the summer."
Caption 6, Cettina erklärt: Halloween
The adverb etwa can also be used as a grammatical particle, which is often difficult to directly translate, but in this case lends a suggestion of disbelief to the statement:
Rauchst du etwa wieder?
Are you smoking again?
Caption 4, 12 heißt: Ich liebe dich: Erfolgreiche Vernehmung
Zweifelst du etwa an der Aufrichtigkeit meiner Gefühle?
Are you doubting the sincerity of my feelings?
Caption 9, Küss mich, Frosch: Die Zeiten haben sich geändert
As you see in the two examples above, etwa is not directly translated. A more literary translation of the above examples, which gives them more of an expression of disbelief on the part of the speakers, could respectively be: "But you aren't smoking again?" and "But you aren't doubting the sincerity of my feelings?"
Read the definition and examples given for the particle usage of etwa on Duden, and search for etwa and etwas on Yabla German to see other examples of these words used in a real-world context.
One topic that tends to intimidate students learning German is the use of these four words: Wessen, dessen, deren, and denen. They are indeed tricky, but they make it possible to construct elegant sentences and are therefore very good to get acquainted with!
Wessen, dessen, and deren can all be translated as "whose." However, unlike "whose" they are each only correct in certain situations. Wessen is related to wer, wen, and wem, i.e. it is asking "who?," but it is possessive. It is used when the "who" of the sentence is not known and could therefore be any gender:
Sach ma [Sag mal], wessen Freundin bist du eigentlich?
Tell me, whose friend are you actually?
Caption 42, Die Pfefferkörner: Gerüchteküche
Es dachte auch nicht darüber nach, wessen Haferbrei das war.
She also didn't think about whose oat porridge it was.
Caption 19, Märchen - Sagenhaft: Goldlöckchen und die drei Bären
Dessen is used when the person or noun in question has already been named or referred to, and is masculine or neuter:
Acht Minuten später schickt der Paulianer geschickt Julian Schieber, dessen Schuss aber knapp vorbeigeht.
Eight minutes later the "Paulianer" [someone from St. Pauli] skillfully sends Julian Schieber, whose shot, however, just misses.
Caption 10, Fußball: U21-Nationalmannschaft
Deren is used when the person or noun in question has already been named or referred to, and is feminine or plural:
Seine königliche Hoheit, der Prinz, wird die Frau heiraten, deren Fuß in diesen Glasschuh passt.
His Royal Highness, the Prince, will marry the woman whose foot fits into this glass slipper.
Caption 83-84, Märchen - Sagenhaft: Aschenputtel
Wessen, dessen, and deren are all genitive relative pronouns. The relative pronoun denen, however, is used for relative clauses involving a plural noun in the dative case, with prepositions such as mit, auf, nach, or bei.
Es macht einfach Spaß, mit denen Zeit zu verbringen
It is simply fun to spend time with them.
Caption 36, Curly Horses: Pferdeglück auch für Allergiker
Und hier sehen wir zwei alte Kutschen, auf denen man im Sommer Kutschfahrten machen kann mit der Familie zusammen.
And here we see two old coaches, upon which you can take coach rides together with your family in the summer.
Caption 38, Berlin: Domäne Dahlem
Searching for any of these words on Yabla German will bring up a lot of examples that can help you solidify your understanding of the topic. You can additionally watch our videos featuring German teacher Barbara and her students working on relative clauses, starting with this one.
Frohes neues Jahr from our team here at Yabla German!
Unfortunately, the newsletter is not in time to wish you guten Rutsch this year (see this lesson for more information on that), but we hope you had a lovely Sylvester.
Have you ever wondered how the adjectival endings on phrases such as these are formed? In the examples below, you can see the full versions of these expressions. In the first one, Ich is the subject, das Jahr is the direct object, and Ihnen und Ihren Familien is the indirect object. All adjectives pertaining to das Jahr have the appropriate accusative case ending for a neuter noun, as does the indefinite article ein.
Ich wünsche Ihnen und Ihren Familien ein frohes, gesundes und gesegnetes neues Jahr zweitausendzwölf!
I wish you and your families a happy, healthy and blessed New Year two thousand twelve!
Caption 36-37, Angela Merkel: Neujahrsansprache
Similarly, in the following sentence, der Rutsch is the direct object, and all articles and adjectives (ein, gut) receive the accusative ending for a masculine noun.
Ich wünsch' euch auch einen guten Rutsch ins neue Jahr.
I also wish you all a good slide into the New Year.
Caption 100, Silvester: Vorsätze für das neue Jahr - Linkenheim
Of course, this is not at all restricted to New Year’s expressions. All of the basic phrases that you already know also follow this rule, for example, Guten Tag and Schönen Tag noch (der Tag), Guten Abend (der Abend), Gute Reise (die Reise), and Gute Nacht (die Nacht). Understanding why these expressions include the adjective endings they do unlocks a very essential aspect of German grammar.
Dann wünsch' ich dir noch einen schönen Tag.
Then I wish you a nice day.
Caption 45, Jenny interviewt: Sabine
Einen schönen guten Abend aus Karlsruhe.
A pleasant good evening from Karlsruhe.
Caption 1, Architektur: der Stadt Karlsruhe
We hope that you will take special note of these and other phrases when you see them on Yabla German in the future. If you want some practice with your direct and indirect objects, write some sentences about the presents you gave to various people this year, for example: Ich (subject) habe meiner Mutter (indirect object) einen Schal (direct object) geschenkt.
The German adjectival prefix Extra- can often be translated as the English adjective "extra." If you wish to use "extra" as an adjective in German, it is not usually a freestanding word (excepting certain anglicisms such as extra dry) but is instead added to whatever noun is being modified. Let's first take a look at examples of the German adjectival prefix Extra-:
Niemand hat einen Extrapullover für Catherine?
Nobody has an extra pullover for Catherine?
Caption 49, Deutschkurs in Tübingen: Die Konjunktion "dass"
Ein Extrapaar Schuhe ist auch immer praktisch.
An extra pair of shoes is also always practical.
Caption 21, Christiane: fährt in den Urlaub
Note that it would not be correct to write extra Pullover or extra Paar, instead the adjectival prefix Extra- is placed together with the noun: Extrapullover and Extrapaar. In some cases where extra is required to modify another adjective, it is still written in lower case, such as in extragroß ("extra large") and extrastark ("extra strong").
The German adverb extra, however, is usually a false friend, meaning it is written the same way in both languages but has a different meaning:
Die habe ich dir jetzt extra geholt, jetzt komm schon.
I got it especially for you, now come on.
Caption 58, Die Pfefferkörner: Eigentor
Ach so, stimmt! Extra hergeflogen aus Saudi-Arabien.
Oh, that's right! Especially flown here from Saudi Arabia.
Caption 30, Fasching: mit Cettina
As you see in the above examples, the German adverb extra is usually translated into English as "especially." However, sometimes the word "especially" is a bit too simplistic for the context, and it is better to use a more tailored translation such as "for the occasion" or "for that reason":
Manfred Schoof hat extra eine einfache Melodie komponiert.
Manfred Schoof composed a simple melody for the occasion.
Caption 5, Bibliothek der Sachgeschichten: Müllmännerlied
Die Hölzer kommen dort meist nicht von extra angelegten Plantagen.
The wood there does not usually come from plantations cultivated for that reason.
Caption 27, Umweltschutz: WWF zur Rettung des Regenwaldes
Come up with a good phrase that you can use as a mnemonic device for remembering the difference between the adjectival prefix Extra- and the adverb extra. Here's such an example that works for me — as do most things chocolate:
Ich habe einen Extrariegel Schokolade extra für dich mitgenommen.
I've taken an extra bar of chocolate along especially for you.
Look for other examples of the German adjectival prefix Extra- and adverb extra in use in a real-world context on Yabla German and learn some other ways in which the word can be used.
This poor pun on the first line from Shakespeare's tragedy Richard III was inspired by one of the most commonly mispronounced words of all: the word "mispronunciation." It's ironic that the word "mispronunciation" — with the single "u" between the two letters N in the spelling — should so often be mispronounced as "mispronounciation" (sic). The "ou" in the the verb "mispronounce" is often falsely carried over into the nominalization of the word. The same applies to "pronounce" and "pronunciation," with the latter often being mispronounced "pronounciation" (sic).
The German words for "comedy" and "tragedy," die Komödie and die Tragödie, are also commonly mispronounced by non-native German speakers. You may find these two types of dramas referred to fairly often on Yabla German:
Til Schweiger und Nora Tschirner in der schönsten romantischen Komödie des Jahres.
Til Schweiger and Nora Tschirner in the most beautiful romantic comedy of the year.
Caption 32, Filmtrailer: Keinohrhasen
Und das nächste wird dann wieder eine Komödie.
And the next one will then be a comedy again.
Caption 75, Schauspielerin: Jessica Schwarz
Diese Mischung aus Action und Drama-Komödie…
This mixture of action and dramatic comedy…
Caption 91, rheinmain Szene: Selig
But how do you pronounce Komödie? If you pronounced it according to standard German rules of pronunciation, it would have three syllables and end, like the English "comedy", with the sound "ee". You would, however, in that case be mispronouncing the word. Both Komödie and "comedy" are based upon the original Latin word comœdia, and the German pronunciation rather unexpectedly follows the Latin "ia" ending, so rather than pronouncing the German "ie" as "ee" phonetically, it is pronounced closer to the Latin "ia" as "ee-yeh" phonetically, giving the word four syllables: Ko - mö - di - e. And the same with "tragedy": Tra - gö - di - e. Note too that the accent falls on the second syllable of both words: Komödie and Tragödie.
Weißt du, es ist eine Tragödie!
You know, it's a tragedy!
Caption 49, Mama arbeitet wieder
While mispronouncing Komödie or Tragödie may not exactly be a tragedy, if you get it right you can at least avoid being the star of your own unintentional comedy!
Hear the proper pronunciation of the word by listening to the recorded playback of Komödie and Tragödie and practice it a few times out loud on your own. Then go to Yabla German and find different examples of the words being used by native German speakers in a real-world context.
In our last lesson, we talked about temporal adverbs for events that have occurred in the recent past or "just now." This week, let's take a look at one of those adverbs that might cause you problems. But first, a little background: the German adjective letzt is usually translated as the English adjective "last, " as in das letzte Mal ("the last time") or in letzter Minute ("at the last minute"). However, the adverb letztens, which might easily be mistaken for "lastly," in fact means "recently," — quite a different meaning indeed. Here are a some examples of letztens from Yabla:
Ich war letztens mal bei Rammstein.
I was recently at Rammstein.
Caption 32, rheinmain Szene: Unheilig - „Der Graf“
Wir haben letztens auf einer Veranstaltung gespielt, wo jede Band einen Song covern musste.
We recently played at an event where every band had to cover a song.
Caption 15, Sons of Sounds: Interview
You can see how some misunderstandings might arise if you misunderstand letztens to mean "last of all" or something similar. But what German words can you use if you actually want to say "lastly," "in the end," or "ultimately?" The easiest German word to remember for native English speakers is probably letztlich:
Letztlich ist so ein Gepard also auch nur ein Mensch.
Lastly, such a cheetah is also just like a human.
Caption 14, Für Tierfreunde: Geparden
Letztlich scheitert der Gastgeber schon im Viertelfinale.
In the end, the host team already lost in the quarter finals.
Caption 33, Frauenfußball: 11 Freundinnen
Habe ich letztlich besser gemacht gesehen.
I have ultimately seen it done better.
Caption 99, Free Birds: Interview mit Nora Tschirner & Rick Kavanian
The adverb schließlich can have a similar meaning:
Schließlich kamen sie an ein großes Wasser.
Finally they came to a great body of water.
Caption 27, Piggeldy und Frederick: Der Himmel
As can the adverb zuletzt:
Mein Wahlspruch heißt: „Die Dummheit stirbt zuletzt“.
My campaign slogan is: "Stupidity is last to die."
Caption 43, Tom Gerhardt: Die Superbullen
It's important to remember that letztlich, which is structurally very close to "lastly," also means just that, whereas letztens means "recently." Go to Yabla German and find different examples of letztens, letztlich, schließlich, and zuletzt to learn the different ways in which these words are used by native German speakers in a real-world context.
A couple of months ago, we took a look at the temporal adverbs damals and früher and how they are used when talking about the distant past. You can follow this link to read or review that lesson. This week, we will focus on talking about events that have occurred in the recent past or "just now."
First, there are many ways to say "recently" in German, including vor kurzem, kürzlich, letztens, in letzter Zeit, and neulich.
Vor kurzem haben wir das Atelier des Juweliers Jonathan Johnson besucht.
Recently, we visited the atelier of jeweler Jonathan Johnson.
Caption 1, Jonathan Johnson: Atelier-Tour
Mit dem Architekturpreis Green Building wurden in Frankfurt kürzlich acht Gebäude ausgezeichnet.
Eight buildings in Frankfurt were recently awarded the Green Building architecture prize.
Caption 1, Umweltbewusstes Wohnen: Architekturpreis Green Building
Ich habe letztens noch im Regen gegrillt.
I recently grilled in the rain.
Caption 4, Tim Bendzko: Grillen auch im Regen
War Ihr Mann in letzter Zeit anders als sonst? Bedrückt, müde?
Was your husband recently different than usual? Depressed, tired?
Caption 4, Großstadtrevier: Von Monstern und Mördern
Ja, haben wir. -Ach, deswegen diese Fragen neulich.
Yes, we did. -Oh, that's the reason for these questions recently.
Caption 10, Die Pfefferkörner: Gerüchteküche
When we talk about something that "just happened," we tend to use other adverbs. Most common is likely gerade eben, but sometimes gerade is used with the past tense to also refer to the recent past rather than what is currently happening. Vorhin can mean "earlier," but also "a short while ago."
Was gerade eben noch unvermeidbar schien...
What had just seemed unavoidable...
Caption 21, Jan Wittmer: Bereit mich zu verlieren
Die Besitzerin hat mir gerade gesagt, dass sogar alle Seifen aus Stutenmilch sind.
The owner just said to me that all of the soaps are actually made out of mare's milk.
Caption 22, Diane: auf dem Weihnachtsmarkt
Vorhin haben wir gelernt, dass es drei Artikel gibt in der Einzahl: "der", "die" und "das".
Earlier we learned that there are three singular articles: "the" [der] , "the" [die] and "the" [das].
Caption 2, Grammatik: Der Artikel in der Mehrzahl
When you look at these sentences and other examples from Yabla German, you may notice that the position of the verb remains unchanged despite the adverb. You can read more about this here and take a look at the different kinds of adverbs as well.
This week, for our beginners, we'll go over the elements of a place setting at the table. First, let's review the different utensils (das Besteck):
Ich brauche zum Essen noch eine Gabel. Eine Gabel... und ein Messer.
In order to eat I need a fork. A fork... and a knife.
Caption 21, Zu Besuch bei Jenny: In der Wohnung
Nein, einen großen Löffel brauche ich nicht, denn ich esse keine Suppe und auch keine Soße.
No, I don't need a large spoon, since I'm not eating any soup or any sauce either.
Caption 23, Zu Besuch bei Jenny: In der Wohnung
Generally, all of these can be described as groß or klein. Just make sure you have the correct declension. The same is the case for der Teller – we can say ein großer Teller or ein kleiner Teller.
... und dann hat man nicht nur was Buntes auf dem Teller,
sondern es schmeckt hoffentlich auch den kleinen Feinschmeckern.
... and then you not only have something colorful on the plate,
but, hopefully, it'll even taste good to the little gourmets.
Caption 47-48, Kochhaus Berlin: Kochen mit Kindern
Here you can see the way different types of bowls are described. Generally, eine Schüssel will be a larger bowl, even a serving or mixing bowl, while eine Schale is smaller and intended for an individual. If it's very small, you can also say ein Schälchen.
Wir schütten den Teig in eine Schüssel oder in einen Suppenteller.
We'll pour the batter into a bowl or into a soup plate.
Caption 27, Apfelpfannkuchen: mit Alina und Sabine
Dann gibt dir jemand ein Schälchen Vanille-Pudding, dann freust du dich da drüber...
Then someone gives you a small bowl of vanilla pudding, which you are then happy about...
Caption 22, Helge Schneider: Auf der Bühne geht's mir gut
You probably already know the difference between eine Tasse and ein Glas, but this list wouldn't be complete without it. Both examples below remind us that when translating "a cup of" or "a glass of," the "of" is dropped in the German version:
Kommt mal mit. Wir machen jetzt mal eine Tasse Kaffee für mich.
Come along. We'll make a cup of coffee for me.
Caption 16, Jenny beim Frühstück: Teil 1
Willst du erst mal ein Glas Wasser trinken? -Ja, gerne. Danke schön.
Do you first want to drink a glass of water? -Yes, gladly. Thank you.
Caption 11, Fine: sucht eine Wohnung
... and the list goes on to include die Zeichnung and das Zeichnen, among others. Do you know which word is which?
Das Zeichen is a noun and can be translated as "the sign" or "the mark."
Das ist ein gutes Zeichen, denn es bedeutet, dass dem Arbeitgeber die Bewerbungsunterlagen gefallen haben...
That is a good sign, since it means that the employer liked the application documents...
Caption 39-40, Eva erklärt: Bewerbungen
The verb zeichnen means "to draw." Das Zeichnen is the act/action of drawing, whereas die Zeichnung is "the drawing" as in a sketch or artwork on paper. The participle of the verb is gezeichnet, which also means "to plot" or "to mark."
Dreimal in der Woche kommt sie ins Atelier, um zu zeichnen.
Three times a week she comes to the atelier to draw.
Caption 29, Malerei: Atelier Goldstein
Quite separate from these two words is the verb zeigen, or "to show," the participle of which is "gezeigt."
Hallo, mein Name ist Christiane und ich werd' euch heute zeigen, wie man Spätzle macht.
Hello, my name is Christiane and I am going to show you today how to make spaetzle.
Caption 1, Bayrische Spätzle: mit Christiane
Im kommenden Jahr soll der Film dann auf der Berlinale erstmals gezeigt werden.
Next year, the movie is to be shown for the first time at the Berlinale [Berlin Film Festival].
Caption 50, Dreharbeiten: zum Film „Playoff“
There are more examples of these words in their various forms and conjugations to be found on Yabla German. For an overview, this page can help you with the conjugations for zeichnen, while this page fully conjugates the verb zeigen.
And why on Yabla German of all places? Well, that's easy: it's because you want to learn German and you know how great the Yabla language learning system is! But speaking of learning, how do you say phrases like "... of all places" and "... of all people" in German?
First, a little background on the phrase. The separable German verb ausrechnen, in its standard form, means "to compute," "to figure out," "to calculate," or "to estimate," as in this example:
Wie rechnet ihr eure Chancen aus zu gewinnen?
What do you estimate your chances of winning are?
Caption 11, Yabla-Filmfestspiele: Preisverleihung
Ja, ausgerechnet Stauffenberg. Wer hätte das gedacht?
Yes, Stauffenberg of all people. Who would have thought that?
Caption 54, Die Stunde der Offiziere: Dokudrama über den 20. Juli 1944
Ich wundere mich ein wenig, dass ausgerechnet heute Ihre Sekretärin nicht da ist.
I'm a bit surprised that today of all days your secretary isn't here.
Captions 54-55, Die Stunde der Offiziere: Dokudrama über den 20. Juli 1944
Und ausgerechnet im „Skatershop“ wartete auch schon der nächste Spießer.
And in the skate shop of all places the next philistine is waiting too.
Caption 9, Thomas D: Ärgernisse
Und das ausgerechnet von Hühnern…
And that, of all things, from chickens…
Caption 5, Tierakademie Scheuerhof: Tiertrainer im Hühner-Seminar
So basically you can use the slang adverb ausgerechnet to mean "... of all" and then whatever the topic of your discussion is. Occasionally, the slang adverb ausgerechnet may be translated otherwise:
… und wieso man ausgerechnet für die betreffende Firma arbeiten möchte.
… and why you specifically would like to work for the respective company.
Caption 25: Eva erklärt: Bewerbungen
Of course, this could also have been translated: "... and why you would like to work for this respective company, of all companies." As with all translations, it's best to use whatever catches the meaning and is most graceful at the same time.
Achtung: sometimes the past participle of ausrechnen shows up and might fool you:
… über hundertsechzig Filme, hab' ich jetzt mal einfach so grob ausgerechnet.
… more than one hundred and sixty movies, I've just now roughly estimated.
Caption 38, Kurzfilm-Festival: Shorts at moonlight
Look for more examples of ausgerechnet used in a real-world context on Yabla German, and for further study compare the Duden definition of the verb ausrechnen with the slang adverb ausgerechnet.
The words in the above headline all mean "at least," but it can be confusing as to which context is correct for the right word. Note too that "at least" is a prepositional phrase in English, whereas in German the expression is usually a simple adverb. The adverb mindestens is probably the most common:
In Deutschland ist es so: Asylbewerber müssen mindestens drei Monate warten. Fünfunddreißig Prozent haben mindestens die Mittelschule besucht.
In Germany, it's like this: Asylum applicants must wait at least three months. Thirty-five percent have at least attended middle school.
Captions 15, 36, Flüchtlingskrise: 10 Vorurteile, die nicht stimmen
The adverb mindestens usually, as in the first case above, refers to a length of time or an amount of something:
Heutiger Hochwasserstand: wieder mindestens zehn Zentimeter.
Today's flood water level: at least ten centimeters again.
Caption 44: Die Klasse: Berlin '61
It's used somewhat less often to refer to circumstances:
Zwar haben die Zuwanderer in der Regel eine hohe oder auch mittlere Qualifikation, die also mindestens einem deutschen Abschluss entspricht.
Indeed, the immigrants normally have a high or also mid-level qualification that is at least on par with a German degree.
Captions 35-36, Rhein-Main-TV aktuell: Mehr Beschäftigung in Rhein-Main
The related adverb zumindest, on the other hand, is used much more commonly for situations rather than lengths of time or amounts:
Nun, zumindest habe ich meinen ersten Anruf hinter mir.
So, at least I have my first call behind me.
Caption 69: Bewerbung: das Vorstellungsgespräch
Be careful not to jumble mindestens and zumindest into one (incorrect) word, something that even native German speakers occasionally do!
Eislaufen ist leicht, zumindestens [sic, zumindest] leichter als auf Vanessas Party eingeladen zu werden.
Ice skating is easy, at least easier than getting invited to Vanessa's party.
Captions 82-83, Küss mich, Frosch: Leb wohl, kleiner Prinz
So remember that mindestens and zumindest are real words, either of which would have been correct in the above sentence, but "zumindestens" is not a proper word at all!
Even less common, but making things even more complex, is the adjective mindeste / mindester / mindestes. This adjective can also be nominalized, or turned into a noun, such as das Mindeste (the least thing), or zum Mindesten (at least).
Go to Yabla German and find examples of the above adverbs and adjectives to see how they are used in a real-world conversational context. To go even deeper into the adjectival usage, read the Duden page for mindeste / mindester / mindestes.
You asked a question and we are happy to respond! We will devote this lesson to the adverbs/prefixes hin and her.
We frequently see the expression hin und her, which can be translated as "back and forth," "to and fro," or occasionally "there and back." But there often isn't a precise translation when they appear individually.
As you can see below, the prefixes hin and her create a more specific sense of direction in the meaning of a sentence. Generally, hin refers to movement away from the speaker, and her refers to movement towards the speaker.
Also, wo ziehst du jetzt hin? -Nach Hamburg.
So, where are you moving to now? -To Hamburg.
Caption 2, Drei Leute: beim Kofferpacken
Wo kommt eigentlich euer Interesse her an den Sepien?
Where does your interest in cuttlefish actually come from?
Caption 18, Abenteuer Nordsee: Unter Riesenhaien und Tintenfischen
But that isn't all! Hin and her are also used to talk about time, with hin referring to the future and her to the past.
Rainer Roth, Saisonpremiere ist auch noch bisschen hin.
Rainer Roth, it's also still a while until the season premiere.
Caption 7, Fußball: Saisonpremiere
Drei Jahre ist es schon her, dass er sich das letzte Mal ins Studio gesetzt hat.
It's already been three years since the last time that he sat himself down in the studio.
Caption 3, Max Herre: Will kein Frauentyp sein
There are, of course, many instances of hin and her used on Yabla German. For some more vocabulary, you can refer to this page for words prefixed with hin, and this for words prefixed with her. For even more information, take a look at this lesson.