German Lessons

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Pets

It is estimated that about half of Germany households have pets. The word for a house pet in Germany is das Haustier  or das Heimtier, while someone who owns a pet is der/die Tierhalter/-in or der/die Tierbesitzer/-in. 

 

Lisa sagt ehrlich, dass Dingos nicht für jeden als Haustiere geeignet sind.

Lisa honestly says that dingoes are not suitable for everyone as pets.

Caption 53, Die Top Ten: Die unglaublichsten Tiererlebnisse

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Experten appellieren an Tierbesitzer, für ihre Lieblinge vorzusorgen.

Experts appeal to pet owners to make provisions for their pets.

Captions 23-24, Für Tierfreunde: Wohin mit Tieren wenn Besitzer sterben

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The most common house pets in Germany are cats and dogs: 

 

Wir wohnen auf einem Dorf und haben zwei Katzen daheim und einen Hund.

We live in a village and we have two cats at home and a dog.

Caption 21, Anna: Am Strand in Mexiko

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Während Hunde und Katzen gute Chancen haben, weitervermittelt zu werden, sieht das bei Reptilien etwas anders aus.

While dogs and cats have a good chance of being rehomed, the situation is quite different with reptiles.

Captions 4-5, Für Tierfreunde: Wohin mit Tieren wenn Besitzer sterben

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However, there are also other typical favorites, particularly among small children: 

 

Die meisten Familien haben Fische, Katzen, Kaninchen, Schildkröten und Hunde. Also, ich selbst habe einen Hund.

Most families have fish, cats, rabbits, turtles, and dogs. Well, I myself have a dog.

Captions 5-6, Haustiere mit Duk Hee

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So, das ist ein Hamster. Hier ist er, der Hase von neulich. Ich setz ihn in den Käfig.

So, this is a hamster. Here he is: the rabbit from the other day. I'll put him in the cage.

Captions 6-7, Weihnachtsmann gesucht: Engel kann man nicht besitzen

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And some people also have exotic birds, such as parrots or parakeets:

 

Wie heißt denn der Wellensittich? -Willi, wie Lilly.

What's the parakeet's name? -Willi, like Lilly.

Caption 40, Lilly unter den Linden: Eine schwierige Wahl

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Wir haben auch einen kleinen Vogel, einen Papagei.

We even have a little bird, a parrot.

Caption 5, Nicos Weg: Meine Heimat

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For people who live in rural environments, certain farm animals may also be seen as pets:

 

Im Sommer kann man auch Pony reiten, Kühe sehen, Schweine, Ziegen, Gänse und manchmal auch einen Esel.

In the summer one can also ride ponies, see the cows, pigs, goats, geese, and sometimes even a donkey.

Captions 21-22, Berlin: Domäne Dahlem

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Jede Ziege hat zwei Hörner und vier Beine.

Each goat has two horns and four legs.

Caption 13, Heidi: Der Schultest

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Dann trafen sie die gelbe Ente und den Hasen.

Then they met the yellow duck and the hare.

Caption 51, Janoschs Traumstunde: Ich mach‘ Dich gesund, sagte der Bär

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Further Learning
In addition to watching videos about wild and domestic animals on Yabla German, look up the following common (and less common!) house pets in a dictionary: das Meerschweinchen, der Igeldie Wüsternmaus, die Schlange, and der Leguan.

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Heat Wave

Many parts of Europe, including Germany, are experiencing a heat wave of unprecedented scale this summer. The United Kingdom experienced temperatures of 40 degrees Celsius (104 degrees Fahrenheit) for the first time in recorded history! Let's talk today about the heat wave and other aspects of hot weather — hopefully with some nice, cool air conditioning running!

 

Die Folgen sind schon jetzt in allen Teilen der Welt sichtbar. Es gibt verheerende Waldbrände wie im Mittelmeerraum und im Westen der USA, Überschwemmungen wie in der Region Ahr und Erft im Juli 2021 und Hitzewellen wie in Sibirien.

The consequences are already visible in all parts of the world. There are devastating forest fires, such as in the Mediterranean region and in the western United States, floods, such as in the Ahr and Erft region in July 2021, and heat waves, such as in Siberia.

Captions 20-24, Klimaschutz: Es geht um das Überleben der Menschheit

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The noun for "heat wave" (or "heatwave" in British English) is die Hitzewelle. The caption above was referring to 2021, and though there aren't any comparable major floods in Germany so far in 2022, the wildfires in the western US and southern Europe are continuing this year.

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Ja, was uns bleibt, ist auf jeden Fall das heiße Wetter.

Yes, what remains for us, is certainly the hot weather.

Caption 13, Umfragen: Nach der WM

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Unfortunately, for many of us in many parts of the world, this remains the case.

 

Du hast bestimmt noch nicht sehr viel Erfahrung mit Hitze.
You certainly don't have much experience with heat yet.

 

One problem with such hot weather (die Hitze) in Germany is that the infrastructure has not been designed to withstand these record high temperatures. Most homes and many shops, offices, and schools have no central air conditioning. It's hard enough sitting all day at work or in school when it's sunny outside, but imagine doing so drenched in sweat!

 

Man musste den Ventilator anstellen...

You had to turn on the fan...

Caption 30, Kinder lernen: wie aus Wind Strom gemacht wird

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Living on the upper floor of an apartment building (often in Europe with no elevator) is also excruciatingly hot. From personal experience, the only means of getting to sleep at night is often to turn on a fan (der Ventilator). Noisy, but less hot!

 

In Griechenland ist es im Sommer sehr heiß. Ich mag zwar Wärme, aber keine Hitze. Also dann... Schweden vielleicht?

In Greece, it is very hot in the summer. I like the warmth indeed, but not the heat. So then... Sweden perhaps?

Captions 37-39, Jenny: Reiseziele

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Warm weather, or "the warmth" (die Wärme), is indeed preferable to the heat. Jenny is right about Sweden, where I just spent a week in mid-July. It was pleasant mid-60s to mid-70s Fahrenheit temperatures, but I could have done without the constant rainstorms. Apparently, the high pressure from the Central and Southern European heat wave is causing more rain in Northern Europe. Depending on where you live, it seems there's either too much or too little summer this year!

 

Further Learning
Go to Yabla German and search for terms like "heat" and "weather" to find more videos relating to hot weather. If you're experiencing intense sunny weather where you live, be sure and read our previous German Lesson Safe Fun in the Sun.

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German Computer Nouns

If you subscribe to Yabla, technology and computers likely play a significant role in your life. To augment a previous lesson on verbs related to computers, today we'll cover nouns related to computers and internet technology. 

First, let's look at the words for the various parts of a computer, such as the hard drive, the keyboard, and the screen. The noun der Rechner can mean both "the processor" and "the computer" depending on the context. Although many words have been adopted from English (such as der Computer or der Laptop), there's still a lot of vocabulary to learn:

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Die Rechner könnten anschließend von Kriminellen zu einem Botnetz verbunden und ferngesteuert werden.

The processors could, consequently, be connected to a botnet by criminals and operated remotely.

Captions 28-29, Apple-Trojaner: Wie man ihn beseitigt

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Aber ist ja nicht schlimm, weil das Originalmaterial insgesamt gerettet wird, und das können die immer noch auf der Festplatte mal irgendwann ...

But that is not so bad, because the entire original material is saved and they can still, on the hard drive at some point...

Captions 30-31, RT Radiotonteam: Erinnerungen retten

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Wenn du auf deiner Tastatur keine Taste für die Umlaute hast, kannst du stattdessen notfalls auch Ae für Ä, Oe für Ö und Ue für Ü schreiben.

If you don't have an umlaut key on your keyboard, you can also, if need be, write Ae for Ä, Oe for Ö, and Ue for Ü.

Captions 20-21, Deutsch mit Donna Blitz: Das Alphabet

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Sieht man das dann auf einem kleinen Bildschirm oder hat man einen Riesenbildschirm?

Do you see it on a small screen then or do you have a giant screen?

Caption 4, Rhein-Main-TV: Interview mit Edmund Stössel

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In diesem Grid können tausende Forschungsinstitute und Universitäten ihre Datenspeicher und Rechner gemeinsam nutzen.

In this grid thousands of research institutes and universities can use their data storage devices and computers jointly.

Captions 38-39, Die Weltmaschine: Der LHC-Teilchenbeschleuniger

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Ich geh nicht eher, bevor du mir die Speicherkarte gegeben hast.

I'm not leaving until you've given me the memory card.

Caption 45, Die Pfefferkörner: Alles auf Anfang

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Sie müssen die Möglichkeit haben zu posten, mit dem Smartphone, Tablet, Laptop, immer und überall.

They have to be able to post with a smartphone, tablet, laptop — anytime and anywhere.

Captions 13-15, Nicos Weg: Das Internet

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Next, there is specific vocabulary related to the internet. Here, there is quite a lot of vocabulary adopted from English, so it's a matter of knowing the article and exactly how it's pronounced. 

 

Wenn ich das melde, dann stellt der Erpresser den Film ins Netz.

If I report it, then the blackmailer will put the video on the internet.

Caption 15, Die Pfefferkörner: Cybermobbing

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Sie will über das WLAN des ICEs im Internet surfen.

She wants to surf the internet via the ICE's WLAN.

Caption 66, Galileo - Zug vs. Flugzeug: Von München nach Berlin

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Wie die Internetseite National Geographic News berichtet, hat Cameron vor ein paar Tagen nahe Papua-Neuguinea eine Testfahrt unternommen.

As the internet site National Geographic News reports, Cameron performed a trial run a few days ago near Papua, New Guinea.

Captions 19-20, Expedition Marianengraben: Zum tiefsten Punkt der Erde

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An welche E-Mail-Adresse soll ich Ihnen die Unterlagen schicken?

What email address should I send the documents to?

Caption 30, Berufsleben: das Vorstellungsgespräch

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Further Learning
For help with pronunciation, go to Yabla German  and listen to the examples. Also, can you guess the meaning of der Router, die Maus, and das Lokalnetz?

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All the Pretty Horses

The title above is from a novel by one of the great American writers, Cormac McCarthy, and its German title is translated precisely as All die schönen Pferde. This isn't always the case with book and film titles in German. For instance, the Spaghetti Western classic Once Upon a Time in the West by Sergio Leone is titled Spiel mir das Lied vom Tod  in German—"Play Me the Song of Death"—not a bad alternate title. But this lesson is about horses, not noir Westerns, so let's hop back in the saddle!

 

A number of German idioms use horses as their subjects:

 

Wohl aufs falsche Pferd gesetzt, hm?

Probably bet on the wrong horse, hm?

Caption 19, Marga Engel schlägt zurück: Der Engel von Leipzig

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The idiom above happens to have the same meaning as its English translation, which is not always the case.

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Die Griechen hatten ein riesiges hölzernes Pferd auf Rädern gebaut, zwanzigmal größer als ein richtiges Pferd.

The Greeks had built a giant wooden horse on wheels, twenty times larger than a real horse.

Captions 42-43, Märchen - Sagenhaft: Das Trojanische Pferd

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The idiomatic usage of "Trojan horse," which means to accept a gift (or story, etc.) that turns out to have negative effects, is used in both English and German. This is the opposite of the English idiom "don't look a gift horse in the mouth," which means you shouldn't be unappreciative or critical of a gift. If the Trojans had only looked that gift horse in the mouth, they might have won the war.

 

Solange wir keine Gewissheit haben, sollten wir die Pferde nicht scheu machen.

As long as we aren't certain, we shouldn't make the horses shy.

Caption 11, Großstadtrevier: Schatten der Vergangenheit

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This idiom sounds a bit odd in English, but die Pferde scheu machen means to cause unnecessary alarm. In this case, the police didn't want to tip off the suspects that they were on to their game.

 

Hans Schmidt ist das beste Pferd im Stall.
Hans Schmidt is the best horse in the stable.

 

There may be a horse somewhere named Hans Schmidt, but in the context of a person, the phrase das beste Pferd im Stall sein means that somebody is the best coworker or the best person in a group of people.

 

Wir kommen vom Pferd auf den Esel.
We’re coming from the horse onto the donkey.

 

The literal English translation of the German idiom above makes little sense, whereas a literary translation would be "We're falling on hard times" or "Things are going badly." But to conclude:

 

Ein Pferd bleibt immer Pferd.

A horse always remains a horse.

Caption 37, Monsters of Liedermaching: Ein Pferd

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As we have seen in the idioms above, when using the word "horse" metaphorically, it can mean everything but a horse!

 

Further Learning
Go to Yabla German and search for "horse" or Pferd to see the different usages of the noun in context. You can also read about other idioms relating to das Pferd on the German language website Redensarten-Index. Meanwhile, we at Yabla wish you all a happy ride into the sunset...

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Taking care

This week, we'll look at German verbs, adjectives, and adverbs that relate to taking care and being careful. 

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You may already know the word vorsichtig. As is normal for German adjectives, it is also an adverb, so it means both "careful" and "carefully."

 

Seid vorsichtig und macht bloß nichts kaputt.

Be careful and don't break anything.

Caption 47, Playmobil: Skispringen mit Familie Hauser

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Fahr vorsichtig, ja?

Drive carefully, OK?

Caption 35, Die Pfefferkörner: Alles auf Anfang

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Other words that can mean "careful" are sorgfältig, which implies a thoroughness or accuracy, and behutsam, which implies gentleness and caution.

 

Hast du die schon mal so sorgfältig bügeln sehen?

Have you ever seen them iron so carefully?

Caption 19, Playmobil: Skispringen mit Familie Hauser

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Wir alle sollten unsere Kontakte auch weiter behutsam einschränken.

We should all continue to cautiously restrict our contact.

Caption 57, Wir müssen über Corona reden: Mit Olaf Scholz, Luisa & Dr. Daniel Zickler

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Und ich nahm ihn ganz behutsam in die Hand

And I took it very gently in my hand

Caption 5, Nicole: Papillon

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Then there is also the word schonend. This relates to the verb schonen, which has a number of possible translations, including "to treat with care," "to protect," "to preserve," and "to rest" or "to go easy on."

 

Und es wird schonend mit dem Boden umgegangen, damit er viele Jahre Gemüse bringen kann.

And the soil is treated carefully so that it can produce vegetables for many years.

Captions 27-28, Berlin: Domäne Dahlem

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Um die Pferde zu schonen, werden die Vierbeiner übrigens selbst auch gedoubelt.

In order to treat the horses with care, by the way, these four-legged actors also have doubles.

Caption 21, Für Tierfreunde: Pferde beim Film

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Na ja, Frankfurt ist ja eine Stadt, die sehr früh als Großstadt politische Entscheidungen getroffen hat, Umwelt zu schonen

Well, yes, Frankfurt is a city that, very early on, as a major city, made political decisions to protect the environment.

Captions 50-51, Erstes Frankfurter „Schuljahr der Nachhaltigkeit“ Abschlussfeier

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Other verbs that relate to being careful or watching out are aufpassen and achtgeben, which can both relate to watching out for your own wellbeing or that of others. 

 

Da muss man aufpassen, wenn man die Straße überqueren will.

You have to be careful when you want to cross the street.

Caption 22, Shuah Auf der Straße in Berlin

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Kannst du auf die anderen achtgeben?

Can you watch over the others? 

Caption 12, Heidi Kann Heidi Peter retten?

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Further Learning
You can look up more examples with the words vorsichtig, sorgfältig, and behutsam on Yabla German in order to better understand the slight differences in their meanings. 

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Odd German Animal Names, Part III

In Part I and Part II of this series, we went through a lot of odd German animal names, looking at how the names may—or may not—connect directly to descriptions of the animals. Today, let's conclude our exploration of the wild and woolly world of odd German animal names!

 

Entschuldige, dass ich dich „Seehund“ genannt habe.

Sorry that I called you "sea dog."

Caption 26, Peppa Wutz, Sport

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The proper English name of the largest rodent in the world is "capybara," and it's formally das Capybara in German. The informal name of the capybara is "water hog," which is also the direct translation of the informal name in German: das Wasserschwein.

 

Wer ist das größte Wasserschwein auf dem Planeten?

Who is the biggest water hog on the planet?

Caption 98, heute-show Wasserknappheit: Verkauft eure Aktien und investiert in Wasser!

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This is a slang usage of das Wasserschwein, and is not referring to the animal at all! Just as you might tell somebody who is drinking up all of the water to "stop hogging the water," this video is referring to a Swiss company that is exploiting a lot of American water resources as a "water hog."

 

Schweinswale sollen direkt vor dem Badestrand gesehen worden sein.

Porpoises were reported to have been seen near this swimming beach.

Caption 32, Abenteuer Nordsee: Unter Riesenhaien und Tintenfischen

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The German word for "porpoise" is der Schweinswal, which translates directly to "hog whale" or "pig whale." That doesn't seem to make much sense, but the fact that they have a flat snout, unlike dolphins with their pronounced beaks, may have led to a comparison with pigs in German. And dolphins are in fact classified as toothed whales, although their nearest relative, going back 40 million years, is the hippopotamus!

 

Some other German animal names with -schwein include:
das Meerschweinchen (Guinea pig, literally "little sea pig")
das Seeschwein (dugong, literally "sea hog" or "sea pig")
das Stachelschwein (porcupine, literally "spike pig")

 

But the winner for the title of the oddest German animal name must be...

 

Eichhörnchen jubilieren nicht“, stellte Frederick richtig, „sie knacken Nüsse, Tannenzapfen, Eicheln und so weiter.“

"Squirrels do not rejoice," rectified Frederick, "they crack nuts, pine cones, acorns and such."

Captions 14-15, Piggeldy und Frederick: Tiere im Winter

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If you translate das Eichhörnchen literally from die Eiche and das Hörnchen, you wind up with either "little oak horn" or "oak croissant"! In fact, the origins of the word Eichhörnchen are uncertain, but the Eiche part probably goes back to an ancient Indo-Germanic word, aik or aig, that means "restless movement," which is certainly an apt description of the squirrel! German squirrels also have tufted ears that look a bit like little horns...

Further Learning
Go to Yabla German and watch the videos listed above to find out more about these animals in context.

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All about fertig

The German adjective fertig is especially interesting because of its slang usages. In standard usage, fertig is usually translated as "finished," "ready," or "done":

 

Nun brauche ich meinen fertigen Teig nur noch in die Form füllen.

Now I just have to fill my finished batter into the mold.

Caption 27, Apfelkuchen: mit Eva

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Die Apfelpfannkuchen sind nun fertig zum Servieren.

The apple pancakes are now ready to serve.

Caption 30, Apfelpfannkuchen: mit Alina und Sabine

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So, mein Apfelkuchen ist jetzt fertig.

So, my apple cake is now done.

Caption 37, Apfelkuchen: mit Eva

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But in its slang usages, fertig takes on different meanings. The phrase fix und fertig, for example, means to be worn out or exhausted:

 

Wir sind fix und fertig, hä?

We are worn out, huh?

Caption 4, Deutschkurs in Blaubeuren: Der Relativsatz

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Simply saying fertig in certain contexts also has the same meaning:

 

Also, ich bin so was von fertig.

Well, I am so completely exhausted.

Caption 67, Großstadtrevier: Von Monstern und Mördern

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The phrase fertig machen, which until the German language reform of 1996 was the freestanding verb fertigmachen, means “to get ready” or "to prepare" in its standard usage:

 

Ich muss noch duschen und mich fertig machen.
I still have to take a shower and get ready.

 

But in its slang usage, fertig machen has a range of meanings, from exhausting oneself all the way to the threat of physical violence:

 

Das macht mich fertig.

It's getting me down.

Caption 14, Deutsche Welle: Leben zwischen zwei Kulturen in Namibia

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Wenn er mit dem Zeug abhauen will, dann mache ich ihn fertig!

If he tries to make off with the stuff, I'll finish him off!

Caption 28, Die Pfefferkörner: Endspurt

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Further Learning
The adjective fertig is also a root word in a number of adjectives and adverbs that have very different meanings. Do you know the difference between leichtfertig and schlagfertig, for instance? If you are ready to go deeper into the topic, take a look at this extensive list of German words containing fertig—but be aware that there are a lot of them. Mach dich doch nicht fertig dabei!

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Meetings and Appointments

This week, we'll look at German nouns related to meetings, appointments, and gatherings, and their particular nuances. 

 

Ja, entschuldige noch mal, dass es gestern mit dem Treffen nicht geklappt hat.

Yes, sorry again that it didn't work out with the meeting yesterday.

Caption 14, Das Lügenbüro: Die Bewerbung

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The noun das Treffen may be the most commonly used word for a meeting or a gathering. However, there are circumstances in which die Besprechung (which can also mean "the talk" or "the discussion") or die Sitzung (which is more like "the session") might be more accurate. The noun die Versammlung generally refers to a larger assembly or gathering. 

 

Mein Mann ist noch in einer Besprechung. -Ah ja.

My husband is still in a meeting. -Ah, yes.

Caption 8, Mein Weg nach Deutschland: Auf Wohnungssuche

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Die Sitzung ist hiermit geschlossen.

The session is now closed.

Caption 72, Yabla Gerichtshof: Das verzogene Hündchen

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Diese Versammlung der Kardinäle beginnt normalerweise fünfzehn bis zwanzig Tage nach dem Tod

This assembly of cardinals normally begins fifteen to twenty days after the death,

Captions 6-7, Papst Benedikt Suche nach einem neuen Kirchoberhaupt

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The noun der Termin generally is translated as "the appointment," but can also refer to a deadline (der Abgabetermin). It generally emphasizes a specific date and time. When it comes to a doctor's appointment (also der Arzttermin), you always use der Termin, and not das Treffen.

 

Und dann könnten wir gleich einen Termin für ein Vorstellungsgespräch machen.

And then we can make an appointment for an interview right away.

Caption 28, Berufsleben: das Vorstellungsgespräch

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Nina hat morgen um acht einen Termin beim Arzt.

Nina has a doctor's appointment tomorrow at eight.

Caption 15, Nicos Weg: Emmas Tag

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The noun die Verabredung is a bit tricky in German, and doesn't have a precise translation in English — you might find it translated as "date," "appointment," "engagement," or "agreement." It is essentially an agreed-upon meeting between individuals (often just two people), and it can even be a date, but not necessarily. 

 

Es kann zum Beispiel bedeuten, dass jemand eine Verabredung nicht eingehalten hat.

It can mean, for example, that someone has not kept an appointment.

Caption 47, Eva erklärt: Sprichwörter

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It is perhaps because of this ambiguity that some Germans will even use the English word and say das Date to specify that there's romance involved. As you can see, it is capitalized in German. 

 

Wir warten. Du hast noch ein Date.

We'll wait. You still have a date.

Caption 56, Die Pfefferkörner: Endspurt

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Further Learning
You can find all of these words in many examples on Yabla German, which will help you get a sense of which contexts they are each used in. For der Termin and das Treffen, make sure that you memorize the gender of each word!

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All about plants

This week, we'll augment our series of lessons about animal names with some basic vocabulary related to plants. Yabla has many videos about the natural world, so it's not so hard to get a good overview. It is also most fitting to the season, with everything currently in full bloom in Germany.

 

Diese setzt sich aus Gras, Früchten, Wurzeln, Zweigen und Rinde zusammen.

This consists of grass, fruits, roots, branches, and bark.

Caption 30, Evolution: An Land

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Der perfekt getarnte Hühnervogel ernährt sich von Knospen, Samen, Beeren und Wurzeln.

The perfectly camouflaged landfowl feeds on buds, seeds, berries, and roots.

Captions 13-14, Die letzten Paradiese Schätze der Natur: Südtirol

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„Es heißt“, sagte Piggeldy, „Blume, Kopf und Stängel“.

"They are called," said Piggeldy, "flower, head, and stem."

Caption 12, Piggeldy und Frederick: Blume

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Like in English, some vocabulary is more specific to trees:

 

Jetzt bin ich hinter dem Baumstamm.

Now I'm behind the tree trunk.

Caption 12, Diane erklärt: Präpositionen

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Doch der Mäusebussard auf dem Ast hat die scheue Katze nur aufgeschreckt.

But the common buzzard on the branch just startled the shy cat.

Caption 22, Alpenseen: Kühle Schönheiten

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A leaf, whether it's the leaf of a tree, a plant, or even a leaf of paper, is das Blatt in German. The plural is die Blätter

 

Im Oktober fallen die ersten Blätter und der Herbst beginnt.

In October, the first leaves fall and autumn begins.

Caption 30, Deutsch mit Eylin: Wochentage, Monate und Jahreszeiten

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Dazu zupfe ich von meinem Basilikumtopf ein paar Blätter ab

For this, I pluck off a few leaves from my basil pot

Caption 30, Cannelloni: mit Jenny

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Es macht halt Spaß, und halt nicht vor ein einem Blatt Papier zu stehen, und jede Aufgabe zehn mal abzuschreiben.

It's just fun, and just to not be standing in front of a sheet of paper and copying each task ten times.

Captions 92-93, Nena: Das 1x1 mit den Hits von NENA

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Further Learning
If you have plants in your home or nearby, see if you can describe them with the vocabulary above from Yabla German. You can also read our lesson on gardening vocabulary

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Odd German Animal Names, Part II

In Part I of this series, we went through a lot of animals whose names end with -tier. In Part II, we'll continue to look at the root words of German animal names and see how they may—or may not—relate directly to descriptions of the animals. So let's further explore the wild and woolly world of odd German animal names!

 

Die Schildkröte steckt noch vollständig im Ölschiefer fest.

The turtle is still entirely stuck in the oil shale.

Caption 51, Ausgrabungen: Auf den Spuren der Dinosaurier

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Die Schildkröte combines the noun der Schild with the noun die Kröte, and literally means "shield toad." Imagine seeing a turtle for the first time: Its shell looks like a shield, and its face, with a bit of imagination, might resemble a toad—albeit a very large one!

 

Normalerweise gelten Waschbären als aggressive Wildtiere.

Normally, raccoons are considered aggressive wild animals.

Caption 2, Die Top Ten: Die unglaublichsten Tiererlebnisse

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You probably noticed already that der Waschbär, the German word for "raccoon," breaks down into "wash bear." That seems a pretty far-fetched description of the animal, which is known for washing food, but does not look much like a bear. In fact, it's possible that the raccoon shares ancestors with those of today's bears, although this is just one theory of several. An 18th century Swedish botanist was the first to make this connection, and since then a number of European languages contain the word "bear" as part of the raccoon's name. The French, however, were less kind—and less accurate—in naming the raccoon le raton laveur ("the washing rat")!

 

Wenn Fledermäuse so schlafen, dann bin ich froh, dass ich keine bin.

If bats sleep like this, then I am glad that I am not one.

Caption 41, Meine Freundin Conni: Conni schläft im Kindergarten

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Die Fledermaus seems to consist of the noun fledern ("to hurl something vigorously") and the noun die Maus. Thus you have a sort of "throw mouse" or "hurl mouse." But that's not where the word came from! Rather, it comes from the Old High German term Flattermaus, which is derived from the verb flattern, or "to flutter." Thus our root words search reveals the bat to be a "flutter mouse."

 

Etwa 20.000 Seehunde haben das Wattenmeer zu ihrer Heimat gemacht.

About 20,000 seals have made the Wadden Sea their home.

Caption 11, Abenteuer Nordsee: Unter Riesenhaien und Tintenfischen

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Der Seehund, clearly a "sea dog" by its root words, is of course a seal. Funny that in English, "sea dog" is an old slang term for a sailor! The more proper German name for the seal is die Robbe.

 

Selbst ausgewachsen werden diese Tintenfische gerade mal 20 Zentimeter groß.

Even fully grown, these squid will only become 20 centimeters long.

Caption 28, Abenteuer Nordsee: Unter Riesenhaien und Tintenfischen

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From the German word for "squid" we can derive, from die Tinte and der Fisch, an "ink fish." The term is slightly confusing, since many varieties of octopus also, like squid, are able to release a dark "ink" to help escape from potential predators. Octopus, in German, is der Oktopus, although the more scientific name is der Krake.

 

Further Learning
In an upcoming lesson, we'll discuss a number of animals whose names derive from das Schwein, but who are not actually related to the pig family. In the meantime, you can go to Yabla German and watch the videos listed above to find out more about these animals in context.

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German Travel Vocabulary, Part III

This week, we'll conclude our lessons on travel vocabulary. So, you've decided what kind of trip and mode of travel, and you've booked your accommodation. Now it's time to consider your itinerary and activities. The types of activities you plan on your trip will also depend on your destination, of course. Cities may offer the opportunity to visit museums or famous historical sites, go to markets, or go shopping:

 

...aber die kleine Stadttour würde ich gerne machen.

...but I would gladly do the small city tour.

Caption 47, Rollendes Vergnügen: Segway-Touren

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Jedes Jahr kommen an die 5.000 Besucher ins Museum.

Every year nearly 5000 visitors come to the museum.

Caption 25, Flipperautomaten: Kunstwerke für flinke Kugeln

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Das ist eine Sehenswürdigkeit in Köln: der Kölner Dom.

This is an attraction in Cologne: The Cologne Cathedral.

Caption 8, Nicos Weg: Ich war schon in Berlin

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Hier findet der Markt nämlich täglich statt.

Because here, the market takes place every day.

Caption 16, Reisen: Ein Tag in Freiburg

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Sie hat Bock auf Shopping, also in die Stadt.

She feels like shopping, so it's off to the city.

Caption 23, Cro: Bye Bye

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Being in nature, whether on the coast or in the mountains, offers its own program of sports or relaxation. In a recent newsletter, we already had the noun das Sonnenbad, but some people like to be a bit more active.

 

Dieses Naturreservoir ist zu Fuß in nur gut zwei Stunden zu erreichen.

This nature reserve can be reached by foot in just over two hours.

Caption 6, Die letzten Paradiese Die Schönheit der Alpen

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Ich soll wandern gehen, ich soll segeln oder surfen.

I should go hiking, I should go sailing or surfing.

Caption 15, Nicos Weg: Freizeitstress

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Aber es ist perfekt, um ans Meer zu fahren und baden zu gehen.

But it's perfect for going to the sea and going for a swim.

Caption 39, Deutsch mit Eylin: Das Wetter

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Beach-Volleyball hört sich an wie ein Freizeitvergnügen, ist aber seit 1996 olympisch und ein knallharter Profisport.

Beach volleyball sounds like an enjoyable free-time activity, however, since 1996, it's an Olympic and a tough professional sport.

Captions 3-4, Olympische Spiele: Beachvolleyball

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So many options! Now all that's left is to pack. If you're flying, you will need to check whether it's possible to check a bag, or whether you'll have to make do with Handgepäck. The noun das Gepäck is a general word for luggage or baggage, or you can say der Koffer to refer to a suitcase.

 

Wir packen jetzt unseren Koffer.

Now we'll pack our suitcase.

Caption 9, Deutschkurs in Tübingen: Reisevorbereitung

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And if you're flying, there's one more thing you'll need to do...

 

Um später Zeit zu sparen, checkt Olcay online ein.

To save time later, Olcay checks in online.

Caption 67, Galileo Zug vs. Flugzeug: Von München nach Berlin

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Gute Reise!

 

Further Learning

Check out our travel videos on Yabla German. Do you have an upcoming trip or vacation? Consult all three lessons, and write down five sentences about how you will get to your destination, where you will stay, and what activities you would like to do.

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Odd German Animal Names, Part I

Once you've been speaking a foreign language long enough, you tend to associate the name of something with whatever that name represents, and no longer notice how really strange that name might be. As we know, German tends to string words together to make new words, and many animal names are constructed this way. If we look at the root words of many of these animal names, however, they look pretty odd!

 

Er spricht das Faultier Sid.

He speaks (the voice-overs for) the sloth Sid.

Caption 6, Rheinmain Szene: Hochheimer Weinfest

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If you combine the adjective faul with das Tier, you have a "lazy animal." That's a pretty logical name for the sloth, which is known for its very slow movements.

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Ein fremdes Murmeltier ist ins Revier eingedrungen und wird verjagt.

A strange marmot has intruded into the territory and is chased away.

Caption 36, Alpenseen: Kühle Schönheiten

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In this case, however, it makes less sense. The verb murmeln means "to mumble," thus leaving us with "the mumbling animal." Marmots are not, however, known for mumbling, nor for speaking clearly, either. The name derives from an Old High German word murmunto, which itself is derived from the Latin word for "mountain mouse." That's one big mouse!

 

Da haben wir aber wirklich Glück gehabt mit der Köchin. Trampeltier. Aber eine gute Köchin.

We were really lucky with the cook. Clumsy oaf. But a good cook.

Captions 36-38, Marga Engel schlägt zurück: Arbeiten für den Feind

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In this case, we are dealing with the slang usage of animal names. Thus the word that is used for a Bactrian (two-humped) camel in formal German is used here to impolitely mean somebody who is clumsy. If you break the word down, the verb trampeln and the noun das Tier are put together to make "trampling animal." But the name actually derives from the dromedary, the one-humped camel, which in Middle High German is tromedar. Say it for a few centuries and eventually it will sound like Trampeltier. Language evolution is grand, isn't it?

 

Further Learning
Let's conclude the lesson today with the rest of the odd animal names that end with -tier: das Stinktier, das Gürteltier, das Schnabeltier, and das Maultier. Maybe you already know these German animal names, but if you don't, try translating the first half of each word and combining them. Then try and guess what animal is meant! You can also go to Yabla German and watch the videos listed above to find out more about these animals in context.

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German Travel Vocabulary, Part II

This week, we'll continue our work on travel vocabulary. The last lesson looked at words related to booking and traveling to a destination, so let's pick up there, and continue with types of accommodation.

 

When you book a trip, there's the question of both die Hinreise (the outward journey) and die Rückreise (the return journey). Depending on your mode of travel, you may instead talk about die Hinfahrt and die Rückfahrt for bus or train travel, or der Hinflug and der Rückflug for a flight. You can also say die einfache Fahrt for a single ticket, and der Gabelflug for a trip with multiple stops. Most of the time, however, you will be booking a round trip ticket:

 

Hin- und Rückfahrt kosten fünfzig Euro, und du musst nicht umsteigen.

A round trip costs fifty euros, and you don't have to change trains.

Caption 22, Nicos Weg: Bahnreisen

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Part of planning your trip is selecting accommodation (die Unterkunft), which is generally based on your chosen destination and budget:

 

Mit Hotel, Jugendherberge und Kapelle ist das achthundert Jahre alte Hospiz heute das Tor ins Innergschlöß.

With a hotel, youth hostel, and chapel, the eight-hundred-year-old former hospice is today the gateway to Innergschlöß.

Captions 26-27, Die letzten Paradiese: Die Schönheit der Alpen 2

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...und vor allen Dingen mit dem Komfort einer Ferienwohnung.

...and, above all else, with the comfort of a vacation home.

Caption 11, Glamping: Camping mit Stil

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Hierzulande hat zwar noch nicht jeder Campingplatz den Glamping-Faktor, aber schon im kommenden Jahr soll es in Deutschland soweit sein.

Here in Germany, admittedly, not every campground has this "glamping" factor, but it should already be available in Germany in the coming year.

Captions 34-35, Glamping: Camping mit Stil

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You will have to choose whether you require ein Einzelzimmer, ein Doppelzimmer, or ein Mehrbettzimmer, which is more often found at youth hostels and may involve bunk beds. At some types of accommodation, you can choose between die Halbpension, which includes breakfast and dinner, and die Vollpension, which includes all meals. More common, however, is a simple Übernachtung mit Frühstück

 

Für ein Einzelzimmer zahlt man siebzig Euro die Nacht.

For a single room you pay seventy euros a night.

Caption 32, Berlin: Indoor-Camping im „Hüttenpalast“

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Inklusive Halbpension, die Ihre Frau selber kocht.

Including half board, which your wife cooks herself.

Caption 54, heute-show Schule, Geschäfte, Urlaub: Leben in Zeiten von Corona

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In Germany, you may also find consider die Pension or das Gästehaus, which are generally smaller and less formal than a hotel. Of course, there is at least one mode of travel that eliminates the question of where to stay:

 

Mit dem Wohnmobil durch Luxemburg zu fahren bedeutet inzwischen, sich entscheiden zu müssen.

Driving through Luxembourg in a motorhome means having to make decisions these days.

Captions 31-32, Reisebericht: Luxemburg

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Further Learning

In addition to watching travel videos on Yabla German, go to a German booking website and do a casual search for flights and hotels in order to see the vocabulary above used in context. For an even more advanced exercise, have a look at this article on unusual places to stay in Germany

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Safe Fun in the Sun

Maybe you live in the Southern Hemisphere, where it's currently winter, but in Northern Germany spring has arrived. We're finally starting to get more sunshine! Der Sonnenschein  is a noun you probably know already, along with some other standards like die Sonnenbrille ("sunglasses," singular in German, by the way!) and die Sonnenblume  ("sunflower"). Let's take a look today at some less familiar compound nouns that use Sonnen- as the root word.

 

The sun comes up with der Sonnenaufgang:

 

Wir sind nie vor Sonnenaufgang nach Hause gegangen.

We never went home before sunrise.

Caption 9, Nicos Weg: So feiern wir!

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Hopefully it will be another sunny day (der Sonnentag)! Not be confused with the day of the week (Sonntag), as there are plenty of those with bad weather!

 

Steh gerade, kerzengerade, lache in den Sonnentag.

Stand up straight, straight as a candle, laughing on the sunny day.

Caption 19, DDR-Fernsehen: Die letzten Sendeminuten des DFF

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But with sunny days comes the danger of sunburn and long-term cancer risks from the rays of the sun: (der Sonnenstrahl, plural die Sonnenstrahlen):

 

...als die ersten Sonnenstrahlen durch die Wolken blitzten.

...as the first rays of sunshine flashed through the clouds.

Caption 48, Märchen,Sagenhaft: Der standhafte Zinnsoldat

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It's best to protect your skin with die Sonnencreme and der Sonnenschutz and keep under der Sonnenschirm in order to avoid die Sonnenstrahlung:

 

Aber bitte... benutzen Sie Sonnencreme.

But please... use sun screen.

Caption 52, Unser Universum: Die Sonne

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Auf ausreichenden Sonnenschutz achten, denn durch das Wasser ist die Sonneneinstrahlung nochmal stärker als an Land.
Make sure to wear sufficient sun protection, because the water makes the solar radiation even stronger than it is on land.
Captions 78-79, Stand Up Paddling: 5 typische Anfängerfehler

 

Hier habe ich einen Sonnenschirm

Here I have a parasol.

Caption 21, Deutschkurs in Tübingen Präpositionen und Artikel

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And then you can go sunbathing—usually expressed in German as ein Sonnenbad nehmen, but here they are "enjoying" sunbathing:

 

Eine Kolonie kalifornischer Seelöwen hat sich auf ihrem Felsen versammelt, um ein entspanntes Sonnenbad zu genießen.

A colony of California sea lions has gathered on their rock to enjoy a relaxing sunbath.

Captions 18-19, Evolution: Die Küsten

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And at long last, after a nice day enjoying the sunshine, comes der Sonnenuntergang:

 

Bei mir muss der Held am Schluss in den Sonnenuntergang reiten.

For me, the hero has to ride off into the sunset at the end.

Caption 57, Rheinmain Szene Unheilig: „Der Graf“

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Further Learning
Go to Yabla German and search for other words using Sonnen- as the root word. You can also go to the DWDS Dictionary and find a long list of words starting with Sonnen-. See if you can guess their meanings before you look them up!

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German Travel Vocabulary, Part I

While many people in Germany have just come back from their Osterferien, people in the United States and elsewhere may already be thinking about trips they might take during summer vacation (der Sommerurlaub or die Sommerferien). This month, we'll devote a few lessons to looking at essential travel vocabulary in German.

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You may remember how much trouble Jenny had deciding what kind of vacation to take. In German, a trip to a city is called die Städtereise, but many people like to keep things a bit more low key: 

 

Ah, klar, ich könnte eine Kreuzfahrt mit dem Schiff machen.

Ah, right, I could take a cruise with a ship.

Caption 32, Jenny: Reiseziele

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Strandurlaub bei Windstärke sechs...

Beach vacation with a wind velocity of six...

Caption 42, Traumberuf: Windsurfer

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Once decided, you'll have to plan your trip and make the necessary reservations: 

 

Ich möchte gerne eine Reise zum Europapark buchen.

I would like to book a trip to Europapark.

Caption 4, Reiseplanung: Anruf bei einem Reisebüro

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In der Hauptsaison empfiehlt es sich zu reservieren.

In high season, it is recommended to make a reservation.

Caption 37, Reisebericht Luxemburg

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Part of the planning is figuring out how you are going to get to your destination. 

 

Stattdessen mit Bus und Bahn zum Reiseziel fahren.

Instead, travel by bus and train to your destination.

Caption 44, WissensWerte: Tourismus und Nachhaltigkeit

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Also mit dem Auto würde ich heute nicht fahren.

So, I wouldn't go by car today.

Caption 45, Deutsch mit Eylin Das Wetter

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Von dort können Sie ein Auto mieten oder mit dem Bus fahren.

From there you can rent a car or travel by bus.

Caption 13, Reiseplanung: Anruf bei einem Reisebüro

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Damit höre ich manchmal Musik, wenn ich im Zug oder im Flugzeug sitze.

Sometimes I listen to music with them when I'm on the train or on a plane.

Captions 23-24, Deutsch mit Eylin: Denk schnell!

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Auf dem Schiff haben fünfhundertsechzehn Gäste Platz, richtig viel Platz.

There is room on the ship for five hundred and sixteen guests, really a lot of space.

Caption 10, Kreuzfahrtschiff: An Bord der Europa 2

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Hallo, liebe Yabla-Schüler, ich stehe heute hier auf einer Fähre.

Hello dear Yabla students, I am standing here today on a ferry.

Caption 1, Unterwegs mit Cettina: an der Rheinfähre

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Further Learning

More travel vocabulary is coming! In the meantime, we have so many fun travel videos on Yabla German. Just do a quick search and you'll quickly find yourself in HeidelbergInnsbruck, or the Alps! You may want to also check out this video on tourism and sustainability.

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But what's the catch?

You're probably familiar with the saying "But there's a catch..." According to the Merriam Webster dictionary, it means that there is a "concealed difficulty or complication" in a situation. There is a similar saying in German, but instead of the noun for "catch," it uses the German word for the noun "hook": der Haken. 

 

First, let's take a look at the pronunciation. You want to really open your mouth wide with an "ah" sound when pronouncing this word:

 

Im Wort „Haken“ ist das „A“ lang.

In the word “hook,” the “A” is long.

Caption 32, Deutsch mit Eylin: Das Alphabet

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Now let's take a look at how  der Haken  is used idiomatically in the form einen Haken haben:

 

Dieses Kompliment seiner Frau ist schön, hat allerdings auch einen Haken.

This compliment by his wife is nice, however, it also has a catch.

Caption 19, Theater: Mörderische Phantasien

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Die Sache hat einen Haken.

In this matter, there's a catch.

Caption 24, Küss mich, Frosch: Die Zeiten haben sich geändert

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You can also use the form ein Haken an etwas sein:

 

Ein Haken an der Sache ist der Preis: In der Hauptsaison zahlt eine vierköpfige Familie für die Lodgesuite am Gardasee pro Woche 1.400 Euro.

One catch with the whole thing is the price: During the peak season, a family of four pays 1,400 euros per week for the lodge suite on Lake Garda.

Captions 36-38, Glamping: Camping mit Stil

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Of course, ein Haken is also used in the literal sense to mean "a hook":

 

Unten am Fluss hängte er zuerst einen Wurm an den Haken und dann die Angel ins Wasser.

Down by the river, he first hung a worm on the hook and then cast the line into the water.

Captions 14-15, Janoschs Traumstunde: Post für den Tiger

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Ein solcher Fall ereignete sich, als sich ein Delfin in den Gewässern von Kona, Hawaii, einem Taucher näherte, weil ein Haken an seiner Flosse hing.

One such case occurred when a dolphin approached a diver in the waters of Kona, Hawaii, because a hook was attached to its fin.

Captions 14-16, Die 12 freundlichsten Meerestiere der Welt

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Der Delfin positionierte sich so vor dem Taucher, dass dieser den Haken entfernen konnte.

The dolphin positioned itself in front of the diver so that he could remove the hook.

Captions 17-18, Die 12 freundlichsten Meerestiere der Welt

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You'll note that "hook" is related to fishing. One easy way to remember this idiom is that "catch" is related to catching fish, which can be done with a hook. And that, dear Yabla readers, is der Haken!

 

Further Learning
Go to Yabla German and see the above examples in context. You can also make up some sentences of the saying using the forms einen Haken haben and ein Haken an etwas sein and have your teacher check them.

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Expressing Suspicions and Assumptions in German

We've covered expressing opinions in German, but what about when you believe something to be true, but aren't completely sure? There are many different verbs for expressing what you assume or suspect to be the case. 

The verbs vermuten and ahnen are rather neutral ways of suspecting something, whereas the verb verdächtigen is used primarily in the context of crime or wrongdoing.

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Man vermutet, hier ist irgendwas in der Lüftung vom Willy-Brandt-Haus.

One suspects there is something in the ventilation here in the Willy-Brandt-Haus.

Caption 75, heute-show: Die männliche Merkel hat Erinnerungslücken

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Von all dem ahnt man oben nichts, denn die vielfältigen Geheimnisse der Alpenseen bleiben meist verborgen.

Of all of this, you would suspect nothing from above, because the diverse secrets of the Alpine lakes stay mostly hidden.

Captions 31-32, Alpenseen: Kühle Schönheiten

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Sie haben den Chip also nur demontiert, damit wir ihn nicht finden und Sie nicht verdächtigen?

You only took the chip out so that we wouldn't find it and wouldn't suspect you?

Caption 23, Großstadtrevier: Neben der Spur

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The separable verb annehmen, and the verbs vermuten and mutmaßen can all be translated as "to assume." However, it is especially common to use the phrase davon ausgehen

 

Das ist wahrscheinlich sehr viel Arbeit auch, nehm ich an.

That's probably a lot of work too, I assume.

Caption 39, Der Fotograf: Sven Siegrist

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Er untersucht die genaue Herkunft von Kunstwerken im Museum Wiesbaden, von denen man annehmen könnte, dass sie während der Zeit der Nationalsozialisten unrechtmäßig und illegal ins Haus gelangten.

He is investigating the exact origin of artworks in the Wiesbaden Museum, that could be assumed to have entered the building unjustly and illegally during the Nazi era.

Captions 19-21, Restituierung von Raubkunst: aus der Nazi-Zeit

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Ich gehe mal davon aus, dass wir circa sechzig Prozent internationale Schüler haben werden.

I am assuming that we will have around sixty percent international students.

Caption 85, Strothoff International School: Interview mit dem Rektor

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Lange gingen Astronomen davon aus, dass die Asteroiden Überbleibsel einer kosmischen Katastrophe, Bruchstücke eines zerborstenen Planeten irgendwo zwischen Mars und Jupiter seien.

Astronomers long assumed that asteroids were small remnants of a cosmic catastrophe, broken pieces of a planet blown apart somewhere between Mars and Jupiter.

Captions 17-19, Unser Universum: Asteroiden - Gefahr aus dem All?

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Further Learning
It being Monday, use the examples above and others on Yabla German to construct a few sentences about your expectations for the week. What do you assume will happen the same way it always does? What do you suspect might be different?

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Subjects, Fields, and Disciplines

We know you're learning German, but what other subjects have you studied? Even if you're not currently in school, it's always interesting to talk with people about what they studied, and which subjects are still relevant to their lives today. 

 

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First, we can start with the natural sciences and the applied sciences, respectively called die Naturwissenschaften and die angewandten Wissenschaften in German. 

 

Jan hat heute seine Physikarbeit zurückbekommen.

Jan got his physics paper back today. 

Caption 2, The Simple Physics: Schrödingers Katze

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Ja, das ist Mathematik oder Mathe.

Yes, this is mathematics or math.

Caption 8, Deutsch mit Eylin: Denk schnell!

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...das heißt wir gewinnen zusätzlich noch in dem Bereich Biologie auch eine gewisse Kapazität.

...which means we also gain a certain capacity in the field of biology.

Caption 40, Für Tierfreunde: Przewalski-Wildpferde

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Ich habe schnell gemerkt, dass mich Elektrotechnik sehr interessiert

I quickly noticed that electrical engineering really interests me.

Caption 10, Deutsche Welle: Lieber Ausbildung als Studium

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In these next captions, you will find some fields that relate to the social sciences, or die Sozialwissenschaften, and the world of business. 

 

Ja? Das wäre so eine Geschichte, ähm, mit interdisziplinärem Input aus der Sportwissenschaft, der Sportmedizin, der Psychologie und der Soziologie.

Yes? That would be something, um, with interdisciplinary input from sport sciences, sports medicine, psychology, and sociology.

Captions 65-66, TEDx: Lebenslange Fitness

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Ich hab schon in Spanien zwei Semester Jura studiert.

I already studied law in Spain for two semesters.

Caption 7, Nicos Weg: Am Bankautomaten

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Ich studiere Wirtschaft und arbeite in einem Café.

I study economics and work in a café.

Caption 27, Magie: Die Zaubershow

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The humanities, or die Geisteswissenschaften, include history, languages, literature, philosophy, and often the arts as well. For more on the arts, you can refer to two recent lessons, one which covered the visual arts, and the other on the performing arts

 

Kunstgeschichte wird ja von Kunsthistorikern gemacht. Da haben Sie recht, das waren immer Männer.

Art history is written by art historians. You are right about that, those were always men.

Caption 25, Malerei: Impressionistinnen

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Interessierst du dich für Literatur?

Are you interested in literature?

Caption 9, Nicos Weg: Das macht mir Spaß!

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Further Learning
Based on what you read above and have found on Yabla German, see if you can figure out the meanings of the following: die Politikwissenschaft, die Kulturwissenschaft, die Religionswissenschaft. Some disciplines, like die Philosophiedie Geografie, die Geologie, die Anthropologie, or die Medizin, have similar names to their English counterparts and may be easy to identify. And then, of course, some subjects have simply adopted the English term, such as das Marketing and das Management.

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