We've all heard the English idiom "to kick the bucket," which means "to die." There are various theories about where the phrase originated from, the Oxford English Dictionary mentioning that the Old French word buquet was a beam on which animals were hung by the feet after being slaughtered, hence "kicking the bucket." The closest to this idiom in German is probably ins Gras beißen, or literally "to bite into the grass," which itself is a close parallel to the English idiom "to bite the dust," again meaning "to die."
There is, however, a German idiom relating to the word "bucket" with negative connotations:
Dann ist das ganze Lied im Eimer.
Then the whole song is in the bucket.
Caption 29, Monsters of Liedermaching: Kleiner Zeh mit Ansage
Wenn Thorsten beim HSV nicht genommen wird, ist seine Karriere im Eimer.
If Thorsten is not accepted at the HSV his career will be in the bucket.
Captions 18-19, Die Pfefferkörner: Eigentor
If someone or a situation is im Eimer, it means he or she or the situation is completely ruined. According to the Duden Dictionary, Eimer in this case is alluding to der Abfalleimer, or trash can. Der Eimer is also German slang for an old ship or an old car. This has English parallels in the slang expression "rust bucket" for an old boat or an old car.
Look for further examples of Eimer on Yabla German and see more examples of how this word is used in a real world context.
You probably fall well within the standard psychological definitions of a sane person, but it's possible nevertheless that, at some point, somebody might accuse you in German of being bonkers, nuts, whack, cuckoo, psycho, mad, cracked, bonkers, potty, barmy, mental, unhinged, or just plain crazy. If you are familiar with a few of the German adjectives on the topic, you will be better prepared to react calmly and rationally, belying the accusation by the very coolness of your manner.
Sag mal, spinnst du?
Tell me, are you crazy?
Caption 58, Mama arbeitet wieder: Papa ist weg
The verb spinnen in formal usage is the spinning of wool, but "are you spinning?" is a slang idiom for "are you crazy?"
Bei euch piept's wohl!
It's really chirping with you!
Caption 41, JoNaLu: Prinz Dreckspatz
The verb piepen in its standard usage means to make a high, whistling sound like a bird, but bei jemandem piept es is a slang idiom for suggesting they are crazy.
Hast du eine Macke oder was?
Do you have a defect or something?
Caption 6, Einsatz für Christophorus: Gehwegradler
The noun die Macke in formal usage is "defect," but in casual use eine Macke haben means to be crazy, to "have a screw loose" so to speak.
Some formal German adjectives referring to a loss of sanity include irrsinnig, psychotisch, geistig behindert, and geistig gestört. The term geisteskrank was a formal term in decades past, but is now considered outdated. As in English, there are very many informal or slang adjectives, including verrückt, wahnsinnig, irre, blödsinnig, blöd, and bescheuert, to name a few. Go to Yabla German and see how they are used in a real world context, but be careful how you use these words out there. The person you are accusing might really be crazy, after all!
The classic rock band the Beatles played a lot in Hamburg at the start of their career and thus felt it was important to release some of their first recordings in German too. The song "She loves you" was also released in 1964 as "Sie liebt dich," and you can listen to it here. The expression is also the climax of a classic fairy tale:
Oh, Biest! Ich liebe dich. Es ist mir egal, wie du aussiehst.
Oh, Beast! I love you. It doesn't matter to me how you look.
Caption 84, Märchen, Sagenhaft: Die Schöne und das Biest
And another classic German expression for being in love:
Ich habe mich in dich verliebt.
I've fallen in love with you.
Caption 31, Filmtrailer: Keinohrhasen
The phrase in sich verlieben is one of the times when the German preposition in has the noun following it in the accusative case. In the Berlin dialect, it is often in the dative case (ich liebe dir, ich bin in dir verliebt), but this is not good High German. Let's stick with ich liebe dich and ich bin in dich verliebt!
Nacht, mein Schatz. Ich hab' dich vermisst.
Good night, my precious. I've missed you.
Caption 4, Mama arbeitet wieder: Die Trennung
Der Schatz is a classic German term of endearment, but it also means "treasure." When I lived in Germany as a teenager, I often heard male American soldiers using the dialect version of the word, Schatzi, to accost unfortunate female passers-by. The word "schatzi" is even included in a number of American dictionaries as an acceptable English word, evidence of a relatively recent addition of a German word into English. And of course, if you love someone, you miss them (vermissen) when they are gone.
Look for further examples of lieben and verlieben on Yabla German and see how they are used in a real world context. PS The Beatles also released a German version of "I Want to Hold Your Hand" as "Komm, gib mir deine Hand"...
A preposition is a type of word that express spatial or temporal relations. Here is a list of known English prepositions. There is no set of rules for learning prepositions, and the prepositions from one language often do not translate directly into another. It's best to learn English prepositions by getting used to using them in context. Today, let's take a look at the preposition "at."
The preposition "at" can be used to express the time of day:
And at three o'clock the Queen comes on and she gives her speech.
Caption 24, Christmas traditions: in the UK
Or to indicate a place:
Or to indicate an activity or proficiency with something:
So I'm very good at working as part of a team.
Caption 34, Business English: The job interview
Or very commonly when mentioning an email address. The "at symbol" (@) in an email address is also called... at!
You can email us at…
Caption 50, The Egoscue Clinic of Austin: Exercises for low back pain
Search for examples of the preposition "at" on Yabla English to see them used in a real-world context.
In the last lesson, we discussed the uses of das Unglück, often translated as "misfortune" or "bad luck" in English. Let's take a happier approach this week and look at some of the uses of das Glück and some words related to it. Das Glück is often translated as "lucky," especially when combined with the verb haben:
Mann, da hab' ich noch mal Glück gehabt!
Man, I was lucky again!
Caption 32, Die Pfefferkörner: Cybermobbing
Das Glück can also mean "happiness":
Und wie lange dauert überhaupt das Glück?
And how long does happiness last after all?
Caption 6, Die Toten Hosen: Ertrinken
Glücklich is an adjectival variant of das Glück:
Glücklich und zufrieden legten sie sich anschließend zur Ruhe.
Happy and satisfied, they afterwards lay down to rest.
Caption 62, Märchen, Sagenhaft: Die Bremer Stadtmusikanten
Der Glückwunsch can be translated as "congratulations" or "best wishes":
Herzlichen Glückwunsch zum Geburtstag!
Heartfelt best wishes on your birthday!
Caption 22, Mama arbeitet wieder: Kapitel 3, Papa ist weg
There are dozens of German compound words that are formed with the noun das Glück, among them der Glücksbringer, die Glückseligkeit, der Glücksgriff, das Glücksspiel, and die Glückszahl. See if you can guess what these words mean without using a dictionary, and then go to Yabla German and see how they are used in a real world context.
The German noun das Unglück is often translated as "misfortune" or "bad luck" in English:
But das Unglück can also be an accident or a disaster:
Es war ein großes Unglück mit dem Vulkanausbruch in Island.
It has been a big disaster with the volcano erupting in Iceland.
Caption 3, Reisen: während des Vulkanausbruchs
There is also an idiomatic usage of das Unglück:
Wir haben Glück im Unglück, dass wir jetzt ein paar Tage länger hier in Spanien sein dürfen.
We have luck in misfortune that we may now spend a few more days in Spain.
Caption 24, Reisen: während des Vulkanausbruchs
The rendering as "luck in misfortune" is literal, but the idiom is akin to the English "a blessing in disguise," when good things come out of seemingly bad occurrences.
But let's not end this lesson on a sour note, instead let's give it das Happy End or das Happyend (a German pseudo-anglicism for a "happy ending"). The opposite of das Unglück is das Glück, which can be translated as "happiness," "good luck," or "good fortune," among other happier words. Do a search for the word Glück on Yabla German and see how the different contexts of its usage can help you understand it better in a real world context.
The German noun die Nachricht is often translated into "message" in English, such as a message left on your voicemail:
Sie haben eine neue Nachricht.
You have a new message.
Caption 27, Die Pfefferkörner: Gerüchteküche
In a slightly confusing twist, both the singular and plural form of die Nachricht (plural: die Nachrichten) are often translated into "news" in English:
Die Nachricht von der schlafenden Prinzessin verbreitete sich in vielen Ländern.
The news of the sleeping princess spread throughout many countries.
Captions 57-58, Märchen, Sagenhaft: Dornröschen
Gute Nachrichten für Hessens Wirtschaftsminister Tarek Al-Wazir.
Good news for Hessia's Minister for Economic Affairs Tarek Al-Wazir.
Caption 1, Frankfurt wird Handelszentrum: für die chinesische Währung Yuan
This may seem odd, but the reason that the word is translated the same regardless of whether it is singular or plural in German is that the word "news" is a mass noun in English. The Oxford dictionary defines a mass noun as "A noun denoting something that cannot be counted (e.g., a substance or quality), in English usually a noun that lacks a plural in ordinary usage and is not used with the indefinite article e.g. luggage, china, happiness."
Do a search for the word Nachricht on Yabla German and see how the different contexts of its usage can help you understand whether it's best to translate this word as "message" or "news," as well as decide when you should choose die Nachricht or its plural die Nachrichten when using it to mean "news."
It's easy to get confused by the names of large numbers in German, as many of them are false friends — number names that are the same as in English but represent different numbers entirely. Let's start relatively small with a mere million:
Rund eine Million Menschen wird in der Stadt erwartet.
Around one million people are expected in the city.
Captions 23-24, Rhein-Main-TV: Feier zur deutschen Einheit in Frankfurt wird gigantisch
Thus "million" in English is the same as die Million in German: a 1 followed by 6 zeros, 1,000,000. But when we ramp it up to an English billion, we find our first false friend:
Drei Milliarden Jahre lang war kein Lebewesen auf der Erde mit bloßem Auge zu erkennen.
For three billion years no living thing on earth was visible to the naked eye.
Captions 19-20, Zeit: Die Vergangenheit und Zukunft von allem
An English billion is die Milliarde in German (plural Milliarden). That's a 1 followed by 9 zeros, 1,000,000,000. Let's get even bigger with our next false friend:
Ich bin eine aus sechs Billionen.
I am one of six trillion.
Caption 7, Frida Gold: 6 Billionen
An English trillion is die Billion (plural Billionen) in German. That's a 1 followed by 12 zeros, 1,000,000,000,000. I'm not sure what Frida Gold is referring to, since the population of planet Earth is 7.4 billion (in English, 7,4 Milliarden in German), so even if she means the English "billion," the count should be 7 billion, not 6 billion! Maybe it just sounded better in the song...
So let's recap what we've learned and go a bit further (false friends are highlighted in bold):
English / German
Million / die Million (1 plus 6 zeros)
Billion / die Milliarde (1 plus 9 zeros)
Trillion / die Billion (1 plus 12 zeros)
Quadrillion / die Billiarde (1 plus 15 zeros)
Quintillion / die Trillion (1 plus 18 zeros)
Sextillion / die Trilliarde (1 plus 21 zeros)
Septillion / die Quadrillion (1 plus 24 zeros)
Octillion / die Quadrilliarde (1 plus 27 zeros)
Nonillion / die Quintillion (or: die Quinquillion) (1 plus 30 zeros)
Note that all plurals of these high-count words in German end with -en.
Take a look here at the complete list of names of large German numbers and do a search for some big numbers on Yabla German and see some more examples of how they are used in German in a real world context!
The preposition gegen is usually translated as "against" in English, but there are some exceptions, especially when gegen comes up in a health context. When discussing whether a medicine is effective for a specific health condition, gegen is usually translated as "for":
Gegen die Halsschmerzen hilft ein Hustenbonbon.
For sore throats, a cough drop helps.
Caption 9, Krank sein: mit Eva
Das kann ganz gut gegen das Bauchweh helfen.
This can help a lot for a stomachache.
Caption 17, Krank sein: mit Eva
However, gegen in regards to allergies is usually translated as "to":
Ich bin erst mal allergisch gegen Pferde geworden…
I first became allergic to horses…
Caption 44, Curly Horses: Pferdeglück auch für Allergiker
One exception, however, is regarding immunization, where gegen is usually translated as "against":
Bist du eigentlich gegen die Schweinegrippe geimpft?
Are you actually immunized against the swine flu?
Caption 24, Deutsche Musik: Thomas Godoj
Do a search for gegen on Yabla German and see some more examples of how this preposition is used in German in a real world context!
There are a number of ways to indicate that something is going "up" in German, but today let's take a look at the prepositional phrase nach oben, which can be translated into English in a number of ways, depending on the context. Let's take a look at some different interpretations of the phrase in German Yabla videos.
Vielleicht halten Sie's grad so ein bisschen nach oben.
Maybe you could hold it up a little bit.
Caption 29, Fußball: Torwandschießen
… dass ein unsichtbarer Faden am Kopf den ganzen Körper nach oben zieht.
… that an invisible thread on top of your head is pulling the whole body upward.
Caption 15, Flirt-Coach-Serie: Die richtige Körpersprache
Das war ein langer Weg nach oben.
It was a long way to the top.
Caption 3, Preisverleihung: Bestes Magazin
Nach oben sind dem Preis keine Grenzen gesetzt.
No price limits are set at the top.
Caption 13, Highend-Fashion aus dem Kloster: Ein Mönch als Maßschneider
Als der Frosch nach oben in ihr Bett getragen werden wollte …
When the Frog wanted to be carried upstairs to her bed …
Caption 57, Märchen, Sagenhaft: Der Froschkönig
In the examples above, you see nach oben used to mean "up," "upward," "to the top," "at the top," and "upstairs." Note that when you say in German that you are going upstairs, it is more common to simply say you are going nach oben than to use the more literal die Treppe hinaufgehen.
The prepositional phrase nach oben also has a number of idiomatic usages:
Das heißt natürlich nicht, dass hier alle Leute die Nase nach oben tragen.
Of course, that doesn't mean that all the people here put their noses up.
Caption 5, Rhein-Main-TV: Badesee Rodgau
Die Nase nach oben tragen means "to be conceited."
Es gibt noch Potential nach oben.
There is still upward potential.
Caption 21, Rhein-Main-TV: Green-Region-Konferenz zur Nachhaltigkeit
And here, Potential nach oben means there is room for improvement.
Ein Mann will nach oben is the title of a novel by Hans Fallada, whose final novel from 1947, Jeder stirbt für sich allein (English title: "Alone in Berlin"), became a surprise bestseller in its English translation in 2009. Ein Mann will nach oben was made into a 13-part TV film in 1978.
Ein Mann will nach oben.
A man wants to move up.
Caption 1, Mathieu Carriere: Ein Mann will nach oben
Do a search for nach oben on Yabla German and see some more examples of how this phrase is used in German in a real world context!
Let's take a break this week from the downward spiral of dismal news reports and have a look at something that's, like, totally whatever. The English interjection "whatever" can be rendered as the German phrase wie auch immer, which directly translates to the rather clumsy sounding "as always too."
Na ja, gut, wie auch immer. Wie auch immer.
Well, good, whatever. Whatever.
Captions 17-18, Warten auf: Rihanna
If the interjection "whatever" is used in a disparaging way, however, to mean "I don't care" or "it doesn't matter," then there is a somewhat less than entirely polite solution:
… mit oder ohne Bindestrich, scheißegal!
… with or without the dash, whatever!
Caption 82, Frankfurter Oktoberfest: Dirndl und Lederhosen
The English pronoun "whatever" is usually simply rendered with the German was:
Man kann machen und tun, was man will.
You can make and do whatever you want.
Caption 20, Abenteuer und Sport: Fallschirmspringen
The English adjective "whatever" has several possible translations in German:
In welchen Höhen und welchen Tiefen wir gemeinsam waren...
In whatever ups and whatever downs we were in together...
Caption 11: Die Toten Hosen: Altes Fieber
Egal, wo ich hingekommen bin, in irgendein Auto eingestiegen bin, lief immer FFH.
No matter where I went, or whatever car I got inside of, FFH was always playing.
Caption 8, Formel-1-Rennfahrer: Timo Glock
The more common translation of welche is "which," and irgendein is usually rendered as "any" or "some," but those would not have worked very well in the examples above. As always with translations, the most important consideration is the context.
Do a search for the word "whatever" on Yabla German and see the many examples of how this word is used in German in a real world context!
Not to be alarmist, but with police troubles in the USA and the rest of the troubles around the world, this might be a good time to note that although the noun "the police" is always plural in English, the noun die Polizei is dealt with quite differently in German.
Die Polizei ermittelt wegen Hausfriedensbruch.
The police are investigating because of trespassing.
Caption 12, Atomkraft: Streit um AKW-Laufzeiten
Ruh dich aus, bis die Polizei kommt.
Relax until the police come.
Caption 15, Die Pfefferkörner: Eigentor
Die Polizei sprach von hunderttausend Menschen.
The police spoke of one hundred thousand people.
Caption 4, Papst Benedikt: Erster Rücktritt eines Papstes in der Neuzeit
In English, there is no singular for the noun "the police", but in the German die Polizei, there is no plural noun form. As you can see in the above examples: die Polizei ermittelt, die Polizei kommt, and die Polizei sprach, the conjugations of the verbs used reflect a singular noun.
Do a search for the noun Polizei on Yabla German and see the many examples of how this word is used in German in a real world context!
German Chancellor Angela Merkel gave an important speech before the German Bundestag (Parliament) on June 28, giving a clear summary of the German perspective on the recent British referendum to leave the European Union. For those of you who don't yet subscribe to Yabla, we are publishing an excerpt of her speech here as an example of the kind of content that you can have access to by subscribing. For Yabla subscribers, it's a great way to view this excerpt of her speech in its entirety.
Nach Artikel 50 der Europäischen Verträge
According to Article 50 of the European Treaties,
hat Großbritannien formal den Europäischen Rat darüber zu unterrichten,
Great Britain must formally inform the European Council
dass es seine Mitgliedschaft beenden möchte.
that it would like to end its membership.
Nach diesem Antrag werden die 27 anderen Mitgliedsstaaten
After this request, the 27 other member countries will specify
die in Artikel 50, Absatz 2, der Europäischen Verträge erwähnten Leitlinien
the guidelines—mentioned in Article 50, paragraph 2 of the European treaties
des Europäischen Rates für die Verhandlungen festlegen.
of the European Council—for the negotiations.
Und nach der Festlegung dieser Leitlinien können die Verhandlungen beginnen,
And after the establishment of these guidelines, the negotiations can begin,
nicht vorher, weder formell noch informell.
not before, neither formally nor informally.
Um es klipp und klar zusammenzufassen: Wir nehmen zur Kenntnis, dass Großbritannien
To summarize it in plain language: We acknowledge that Great Britain
einen Antrag gemäß Artikel 50 der EU-Verträge noch nicht stellen will,
does not yet want to submit a request in accordance with Article 50 of the EU Treaties
und Großbritannien seinerseits muss zur Kenntnis nehmen,
and Great Britain must for its part acknowledge
dass es keine wie auch immer gearteten Verhandlungen oder
that there can and will be no negotiations or
Vorgespräche geben kann und wird, solange der Antrag
preliminary discussions whatsoever as long as the motion in accordance
nach Artikel 50 nicht gestellt wurde, weder formell noch informell.
with Article 50 has not been submitted, neither formal nor informal.
Und ich kann unseren britischen Freunden nur raten, sich hier nichts vorzumachen
And I can only advise our British friends not to have any misconceptions
bei den notwendigen Entscheidungen, die in Großbritannien getroffen werden müssen.
regarding the necessary decisions that must be reached in Great Britain.
Sobald beziehungsweise erst wenn der Antrag gemäß Artikel 50
As soon as, or respectively, only when the motion in accordance with Article 50
der EU-Verträge vorliegt, beginnt eine zweijährige Frist für die Verhandlungen.
of the EU Treaties is submitted, will a two year period for the negotiations begin.
Diese Frist kann verlängert werden, und zwar wieder nur durch einen einstimmigen Beschluss.
This time period can be extended and only—indeed once again—through a unanimous ruling.
An ihrem Ende wird eine Vereinbarung über die genauen Einzelheiten
At its end, an arrangement about the exact details
des Austritts Großbritanniens aus der Europäischen Union stehen.
of Great Britain's exit from the European Union will be produced.
Solange die Verhandlungen laufen, bleibt Großbritannien Mitglied der Europäischen Union.
As long as the negotiations are in progress, Great Britain will remain a member of the European Union.
Alle Rechte und Pflichten, die sich aus dieser Mitgliedschaft ergeben,
All rights and obligations that result from this membership
sind bis zum tatsächlichen Austritt vollständig zu achten und einzuhalten,
are, until the actual exit, to be completely respected and complied with,
und das gilt für beide Seiten gleichermaßen.
and that applies for both sides equally.
Captions 1-25, Brexit-Votum: Merkel warnt vor Spaltung Europa
Do a search on Yabla German for some of the bureaucratic terms in Merkel's speech that you may be less familiar with to see the words used in other contexts. Here is a list to start with: der Antrag, der Beschluss, die Frist, der Mitgliedsstaat, die Verhandlung, die Vereinbarung. You can also read Chancellor Merkel's entire speech here. If you have not yet subscribed to Yabla German, try these sample videos to see how our language learning system works!
If you are planning a longer-term stay in Germany to study or just to live, you may want to familiarize yourself with some of the typical terms used when banking in Germany. Our latest Yabla video Eva erklärt Bankkonten does just that!
Damit man dieses Geld auch bekommt, benötigt man ein Bankkonto beziehungsweise ein Girokonto.
In order to also receive this money, you need a bank account or respectively a checking account.
Captions 7-8, Eva erklärt: Bankkonten
Terms: das Bankkonto, das Girokonto
Um das Konto einzurichten, benötigt die Bank eine Anmeldebestätigung des Bürgeramtes.
In order to set up the account, the bank needs a confirmation of registration from the municipal office.
Captions 15-16, Eva erklärt: Bankkonten
Terms: die Anmeldebestätigung, das Bürgeramt
Wenn man das möchte, kann man bei der Bank auch einen Dispositionskredit beantragen.
If you would like, you can also apply for a credit line at the bank.
Captions 20-21, Eva erklärt: Bankkonten
Term: der Dispositionskredit
Mit dieser kann man Geld abheben, Kontoauszüge holen und beim Einkaufen bezahlen.
With this, you can withdraw money, get bank statements, and pay when shopping.
Captions 26-27, Eva erklärt: Bankkonten
Terms: abheben, der Kontoauszug
Do a search on Yabla German for more terms related to opening a bank account and familiarize yourself with any terms you may not know. Here is a list to start with: die Bankgebühr, die Bankkarte, die Filiale, der Geldautomat, die Geldkarte, das Guthaben, die Hypothek, die Kreditwürdigkeit, der Personalausweis, der Reisepass.
The German media has been reporting a sharp rise in applications from Brits in Germany seeking German citizenship, because as long as their application is made before Britain officially leaves the European Union, they will be able to retain their British passport. Once the Brexit is finalized, however, British citizens applying for German citizenship may have to give up their British citizenship to do so—an understandably difficult decision.
Yabla is introducing the first installment of a new six part series this week with sample questions from the naturalization test required by the German government. The test is drawn from a total of 310 questions, ten of them specific to the state in which you are applying. But don't worry, they randomly draw a total of only 33 questions from the 310 for the test, and you only have to get 17 (or about 52%) of them correct. Today we can go through some German terms related to citizenship issues.
Heute geht es um den deutschen Einbürgerungstest.
Today we're talking about the German naturalization test.
Caption 2, Bundesrepublik Deutschland: Einbürgerungstest
From der Bürger (citizen) you get die Einbürgerung (naturalization).
Wann kann in Deutschland eine Partei verboten werden? -Wenn sie gegen die Verfassung kämpft.
When can a political party become banned in Germany? -When it strives against the constitution.
Captions 6-7, Bundesrepublik Deutschland: Einbürgerungstest
Was ist mit dem deutschen Grundgesetz vereinbar? -Die Geldstrafe.
What is compatible with the German constitution? -Monetary penalties [fines].
Captions 17-18, Bundesrepublik Deutschland: Einbürgerungstest
Here you see two common words for the constitution: die Verfassung and das Grundgesetz. In Germany, the concept of freedom of speech is, unlike that in the United States, defined in the constitution to forbid any speech which is hostile to democratic ideals or expresses hatred of people based on their nationality, race, or religion. The latter is a felony crime called die Volksverhetzung or "incitement to hatred" in the official government translation. It is also a serious crime in Germany to give a so-called Hitler salute with the right arm upraised, even in jest. A Canadian tourist found this out the hard way some years ago and had to pay a stiff fine.
Was ist Deutschland nicht? -Eine Monarchie.
What is Germany not? -A monarchy.
Captions 9-10, Bundesrepublik Deutschland: Einbürgerungstest
If you didn't know that German isn't a monarchy, you may find this test difficult, but for the rest of you it should be pretty easy. Don't forget to learn the 16 Bundesländer!
Do a search on Yabla German for terms like der Staatsbürger or der Flüchtling to find videos with migration themes. You can also take a sample test with all 310 questions on the website of the Bundesamt für Migration und Flüchtlinge.
The referendum in Great Britain to leave the European Union was nicknamed "Brexit," a portmanteau of the words "Britain" and "exit." The same nickname was used in Germany. Let's take a moment to divert our attention from that event and focus instead on the different ways we can say "exit" in German.
Wir können die nächste Ausfahrt nehmen oder noch weiterfahren.
We can take the next exit or keep on driving.
Caption 7, Deutsche Bands: Luxuslärm
Die Ausfahrt is the most commonly seen translation of "exit" and is usually used in reference to the offramp of a roadway.
Wo ich reinkomme, geht man raus.
Where I enter, they exit.
Caption 43, Frank Zander: Hier kommt Kurt
This is "exit" in its simple slang form of rausgehen, or "to go out."
Und zeigst nur stumm auf die Ausgangstür.
And just point silently to the exit door.
Caption 10, Herbert Grönemeyer: Was soll das?
Der Ausgang is usually meant as the point where you leave a building.
Brüller, Lacher, Brüller, Abgang, mehr ist nicht zu machen.
Big laugh, laugher, big laugh, exit, there isn't more to do.
Caption 19, Ab durch die Heimat: 4 Comedians unterwegs im Südwesten
Der Abgang is the simple act of leaving or the act of leaving a specific sphere of activity. It can also mean the person who has left, as in "the one who left," although the more common terms are der Abgänger or die Abgängerin. Der Abgang is still occasionally used in medical and military circles to refer to death.
Das sind alles Leute, die eigentlich nichts weiter verbrochen haben,
als dass sie einen Ausreiseantrag gestellt haben.
These are all people who actually violated nothing more than that they submitted an exit visa application.
Caption 27-28, DDR zum Anfassen: Ganz tief im Westen
Der Ausreiseantrag or "exit visa application" uses the word die Ausreise for "exit," which on its own would usually be translated as "departure." Hopefully the citizens of the United Kingdom —possibly soon consisting only of non-EU countries England and Wales — will not be required to file an Ausreiseantrag in order to leave what remains of the UK. It is nearly certain, however, that they will now have to get a residence permit (die Aufenthaltserlaubnis) to live in the EU.
Do a search on Yabla German to see the different ways that terms for "exit" such as der Abgang, die Ausfahrt, and der Ausgang are used in a real world context.
In English, a person can be described as standing in the middle of the sidewalk in the middle of the day, and whether you are talking about place or time, the phrase "in the middle of" is correct. In German, however, there are two expressions: mitten im (or mitten in der for feminine nouns) and mitten am (mitten an der for feminine nouns). In most cases, whether discussing time or place, the phrase mitten im (in der) is used, whether for time of the year:
Vor langer Zeit mitten im eisigsten Winter…
A long time ago in the middle of the iciest winter…
Caption 5, Märchen, Sagenhaft: Schneewittchen
Or for place:
Ich finde das eine wichtige Stelle, mitten in der Stadt.
I think it is an important place, in the middle of the city.
Captions 25-26, Holocaust-Gedenktag: Gedenkstätte am Michelsberg
The phrase mitten am (mitten an der) is used less frequently but in very specific contexts. For place, mitten am is used primarily when something is physically located on a place. In the following example, you can see why mitten im would sound wrong, as it would suggest that the kiosk is inside Friedberger Platz rather than on it:
Neben mir steht der Besitzer von dem schönen Kiosk mitten am Friedberger Platz.
Next to me stands the owner of the nice kiosk in the middle of Friedberger Platz.
Captions 1-2, Frankfurt: Der Friedberger Platz
Generally you wouldn't say mitten am Friedberger Platz anyway, you would simply say auf Friedberger Platz. If the kiosk were located on the edge of the square, you would say an Friedberger Platz.
When used with period of day terms, it is more common to use mitten am than mitten im: Mitten am Morgen (in the middle of the morning); Mitten am Nachmittag (in the middle of the afternoon); or Mitten am Tag (in the middle of the day, or "in broad daylight"). When discussing nighttime, however, the mitten in der phrase is standardly used: Mitten in der Nacht (in the middle of the night). In general, mitten does not have any influence on the above usage of the prepositions am or in der, as they are also am Morgen and in der Nacht etc. when used without the word mitten.
Look for further examples of mitten im, mitten in der, mitten am, and mitten an der on Yabla German to see these phrases used in a real-world context.
There is a tendency in spoken German to use shorter forms of words. This is something that is especially noticeable in the first person present tense of verbs: ich geh, ich fahr, ich komm, etc. instead of ich gehe, ich fahre, ich komme etc. While the former should not be used in any kind of formal writing and would certainly lose you points on an accredited German test, they are nevertheless considered standard German and not slang or dialect.
This dropping of the letter is called an elision. The basis for dropping the -e above is die Sprachökonomie or "speech economy," a positive description of which is "the improvement of communication through simpler modes of speaking." A less flattering motivation for shortening words might be "simple laziness."
Since the dropping of the -e in first person present tense verbs is standard (though not formally correct) German, the use of an apostrophe to notate the missing -e is not only unnecessary, it is incorrect. According to Duden: Ein solches nicht vorhandenes e wird nicht durch einen Apostroph ersetzt. However, it is Yabla's responsibility to teach formally correct German, and it is a priority to avoid giving the impression that ich komm is formally correct. Therefore, Yabla has decided to let the German learner know that a letter is missing from the formally correct version by using an apostrophe to indicate the missing -e: ich komm'.
Here are some examples of elisions on Yabla German with the missing -e marked with an apostrophe. Because of the apostrophe, you learn that the word is not formally correct and requires the missing letter to be formally correct. Remember, however, that the formally correct German way of writing the elision is actually without the apostrophe!
Nee, ich komm’ aus der Pforzheimer Gegend.
No, I come from the area around Pforzheim.
Caption 33, Unterwegs mit Cettina: an der Rheinfähre
Ich fahr' eigentlich auch total gerne Schlittschuh.
I actually also really like to go ice skating.
Caption 3, Diane: am Weihnachtsmarkt
Ich geh' bloß gern nach Italien in Urlaub.
I only like to go to Italy on vacation.
Caption 32, Fasching: mit Cettina